Biochemistry and clinical biochemistry

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 BIO/12
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Acquisition of the basics to understand the composition and molecular organization of the cell. Learning of cellular metabolism and of the most important metabolic relationships between the various tissues and between the various organs. Acquisition of the metabolism of the extracellular substance, bone and dental tissue. Understanding of the basics for ascertaining nutritional status and haemostasis. Acquisition of the concept of biological and analytical variability as well as of the total quality of care services, especially those relating to chemical-clinical determinations of the main analytes.
Expected learning outcomes
Overview of human metabolism. Acquisition of the notion that pathological states are determined by metabolic alterations of the substances of which the human body is composed. Understanding of work protocols in general and their improvement. Interpretative skills of the most common analytes and specifically those concerning nutritional status, bone remodelling and haemostasis.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lessons will be taught in MIXED mode (SYNCHRONOUS / ASYNCHRONOUS) according to the lessons calendar through the use of the Microsoft Teams platform. The lessons will be delivered through power points and will be available on the Ariel and / or Teams platform.
Assessment methods and criteria ( emergency phase)
The exams will be organized by using the on-line procedure based on MOODLE plus SEB according with the instructions available on UNIMI home page
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have complete mastery of the concepts covered in the courses of Chemistry and Biochemistry Propaedeutic and Biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning verification will be carried out with a written test of questions with only one correct answer for the duration of 80 minutes. The evaluation will be proportional to the correctly answered questions. At the request of the student, learning can be further verified with an oral interview. The result of the written test, expressed in thirtieth, will be recorded using the specific website of the University.
Biochemistry
Course syllabus
Introduction: body composition and concept of homeostasis. Glycides, lipids and proteins: structure and metabolic and structural roles. Classification of proteins, antibodies and chromoproteins. Electrophoretic profile of plasma proteins. Enzymes: Energy aspects, principles of enzymatic catalysis, activation energy. Enzymatic activity. Meaning of Km, competitive and non-competitive inhibition. Enzymes in the metabolic pathways. Principles of regulation of enzymatic activity, allosterism. Nomenclature of enzymes. Vitamins and coenzymes. Biological membranes: structure, proteins and membrane lipids, regulation of fluidity. Transport systems.
Metabolism. Anabolism and catabolism, ADP phosphorylation at the substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP biosynthesis, regulation, inhibitors and decouplers.
Cellular communication. Signal / receptor molecule interaction, surface cellular receptors, the signal molecules, first and second messenger. Hypothalamic / pituitary / endocrine glands axis.
Nutritional needs. Energy needs, body mass index, basal and functional metabolism, induced thermogenesis. Plastic requirements, indispensable amino acids and nitrogen balance.
Metabolism.
Glycides: Digestion, absorption and transport. Hormonal regulation of glucose, insulin / glucagon. Glycolysis, energy balance and its regulation. Pyruvate oxidation and role of vitamin B1. The Krebs cycle energy balance and its regulation. The cycle of pentose phosphates, products and regulation. Glycogen metabolism and its regulation.
Lipids: Digestion, absorption and delivery of lipids. Lipoprotein metabolism and electrophoresis. Oxidative metabolism of fatty acids, mitochondrial, peroxisomal and microsomal oxidation. Metabolism of ketone bodies, regulations and energy yields. Catabolism and biosynthesis of endogenous triglycerides. Biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation of fatty acids and their regulation. Complex lipid metabolism. Cholesterol metabolism and its regulation. Vitamin B5, B7, F, lipoate and carnitine.
Proteins: Digestion and amino acid metabolism. Transamination, oxidative deamination, urea cycle, biogenic amines, ammonia toxicity. Vitamin B6, B12 and folate.
Nucleotides: purine and pyrimidine metabolism, biosynthesis, catabolism and metabolic regulations.
Metabolic integrations: gluconeogenesis, metabolic relationships between lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids in different tissues.
Functional biochemistry, adipose tissue, energy balance and thermogenesis. Free radicals and antioxidant defences. Oxygen transport and acid / base balance. Renal, muscle and liver biochemistry. Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix, bone and dental tissue. Haemostasis. Iron metabolism. Biochemistry of nervous tissue
Teaching methods
The lesson, for each topic, will be structured as follows: introduction, overview, detailed discussion, reports and summary. The topics will all be covered on the blackboard.
Teaching Resources
The following texts are recommended for the Biochemistry module:
Siliprandi and Tettamanti, Medical Biochemistry, Piccin Ed.
David L. Nelson and M.M. Cox, Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry
Marks A, Lieberman M, Biochimica medica : Un approccio clinico, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Course syllabus
Principles and applications of the main genetic investigation techniques. Congenital metabolic diseases of the metabolism.
Teaching methods
The lesson, for each topic, will be structured as follows: introduction, overview, detailed discussion, reports and summary. The topics will all be covered by using power point presentation.
Teaching Resources
Laboratory medicine - G Federici - Ed. McGraw-Hill
Clinical interpretation of laboratory tests - Ronald A. Sacher - Ed. McGraw-Hill
Clinical biochemistry
Course syllabus
Introduction, purpose, potential and limits of laboratory tests.
Clinical biochemistry methods: biological variability, analytical and pre-analytical variability. Analytical goals and quality control. The terms of comparison of biochemical-clinical data: reference intervals, desirable levels, decision levels, critical difference. Principles and applications of the main techniques used in clinical biochemistry. Enzymes and other macromolecular markers of functionality and injury. Diagnostic potential of plasma proteins. Evaluation of hemostatic functionality. Evaluation of glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Evaluation of liver, kidney and bone tissue function.
Teaching methods
The lesson, for each topic, will be structured as follows: introduction, overview, detailed discussion, reports and summary. The topics will all be covered on the blackboard.
Teaching Resources
Laboratory medicine - G Federici - Ed. McGraw-Hill
Clinical interpretation of laboratory tests - Ronald A. Sacher - Ed. McGraw-Hill
Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 60 hours
Clinical biochemistry
BIO/12 - CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Goi Giancarlo
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
BIO/12 - CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Goi Giancarlo
Professor(s)
Reception:
to be defined by email
Palazzo LITA, via Fratelli Cervi 93, Segrate