The course aims to provide students with: i) knowledge on the most common internal medicine diseases including the most common cancer medicine ones; ii) the skills that will enable students to perform a differential diagnosis and to define the therapeutic pathway of these pathologies; iii) the knowledge necessary to develop a diagnostic and therapeutic pathway based on the principles of clincal methodology and evidence-based medicine.
Expected learning outcomes
Students must: i) know how to elaborate - diagnostic hypotheses of the most common internal medicine pathologies through the anamnesis and physical examination of the patient - a diagnostic procedure through laboratory tests and instrumental examinations; ii) critically interpret the required laboratory and instrumental reports to finalize the diagnostic process; iii) set up the therapy for the most common internal medical conditions.
Lesson period: Second semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
- The difference between a patient disease and illness - Disease narrations: main features and analysis - Narrative interviews: characteristics - Reflective writing in medicine: meaning and objectives. Professionalizing itinerary of the Course Each student will be presented, by a nurse of the medical division he has been assigned to, to a inpatient from whom he will record a "illness experience" to be uploaded on the student's portfolio on the ARIEL platform. The patient encounter will be preceded by a briefing meeting to prepare the student to this experience.
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites required for admission
Interactive classes, with both plenary sessions and small group working. Commenting and "reading" a painting. Workshop on a recorded interview with a neoplastic patient. Encounter between the student and a patient to gather a personal history of the disease and the illness experience.
- Brody H. (2003), Stories of Sickness, Oxford University Press, Oxford: Cap. 2 (da pag. 23 a pag. 30), cap. 5 (da pag. 81 a pag. 89) - Wald H., Reis S. (2010), Beyond the Margins: Reflective Writing and Development of Reflective Capacity in Medical Education, in Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(7):746-9 - Wald HS1, Borkan JM, Taylor JS, Anthony D, Reis SP. Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing.Acad Med. 2012 Jan;87(1):41-50. - Dolev JC, Friedlaender LK, Braverman IM. Use of fine art to enhance visual diagnostic skills. JAMA. 2001 Sep 5;286(9):1020-1. - Bolton G. The art of medicine. Writing values. Lancet 2009;374:20-21 - Zannini L, Gambacorti-Passerini MB, Battezzati PM. La formazione alle soft skills nel Corso di laurea in Medicina: uno studio qualitativo sulle scritture riflessive di un campione di studenti. Educational Reflective Practices. 2016; 6(2):9-25
Assessment methods and Criteria
Each student will undergo a formative assessment based on the reflective writing skills shown by his report of the patient encounter which took place during attendance to the assigned clinical division. The report will be uploaded on the ARIEL teaching platform of the degree course. Student evaluation will be based on the following criteria: the ability to extend the writing spectrum from a descriptive approach to exploration and critique of assumptions, values, beliefs; description of possible disorienting dilemmas, attending to the patient's emotions and to personal emotions.