Elements of human anatomy, pharmacology and immunology

A.Y. 2020/2021
9
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/14 BIO/16 MED/04
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
This course aims to provide students with:
- the concept of Pharmacology, understood as the mutual interaction between a substance introduced into the body and the body itself. This interaction may have different meanings: (i) be aimed at amending a pathological condition (therapy); (ii) damage the organism (toxicant); (iii) be used to study the organism (medication as a study tool);
- basic knowledge of general organization and structure of the human body, examining some apparatuses/systems and organs from the macroscopic level to the ultrastructural one;
- basic knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student must have acquired:
- the ability to understand in detail and to critically analyze what is shown in the leaflet that accompanies the drugs;
- the ability to describe the general organization of the human body, with particular reference to anatomical organization, key functional aspects and their main interactions of apparatuses and systems involved in defense, communication and distribution functions;
- basic knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Basics of Pharmacology
The pathway of a drug from entering the body to its exit will be illustrated (Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) in relation to its characteristics and those of the subjects assuming them (pharmacogenetics). Concept of dose-response, therapeutic index, descriptive pharmacokinetics.
The main knowledges on drugs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics), possible targets and drug-drug interactions are explained.
The rational choice of drug use in specific diseases will be discussed as an example.

Basics of Human Anatomy
Organization of the human body. Classification and anatomical organization of organs. Apparatuses or systems: definition and overview of their composition, organization and function. Anatomic terminology. Membranes and cavities of the human body. Anatomical planes and sections.
The cardiovascular system: general organization and functions; pulmonary and systemic circulation. Morphology and structure of the heart; superficial and internal anatomy of the heart; heart valves; intrinsic conduction system. Blood vessels classification and structure. Coronary circulation; systemic arterial and venous circulation; vascularization of the head, neck and encephalon (or brain).
The lymphatic system: functions and components. Lymph and lymphatic vessels. Morpho-functional characteristics of lymphatic, hematopoietic and hemocatheretic organs.
The nervous system: anatomical and functional organization. Central nervous system: encephalon; spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system: anatomical and functional organization; sensory and motor components; SNS, ANS, ENS. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves. ANS or vegetative nervous system: functional components and anatomical subdivision.
The endocrine system: overview; comparison between the endocrine system and the nervous system. Morpho-functional characteristics of endocrine glands.

Basics of Immunology
Introduction to the immune system: immune cells, lymphoid tissue, cytokines.
Innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity and inflammation, the complement system. Elements of innate immunity. Phagocytes, complement system, barriers.
Cell mediated immune response. The development of T and B lymphocytes. Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. Antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes. T and B cell receptors. The development of lymphocyte repertoire. Major histocompatibility complex, functional role and diversity.
The structure of antibodies. Diversity in the humoral immune response.
Mechanism of action of antibodies.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have the basic knowledge of cytology, histology, general and animal physiology, biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Interactive lessons with PowerPoint presentations. Attendance at classes is strongly recommended.
Teaching Resources
Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Ed. Piccin, 2011
McKinley, O'Loughlin, Anatomia umana, Ed. Piccin, 2014
Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch, Anatomia Umana, EdiSES 2016
Martini, Tallitsch, Nath Anatomia Umana, EdiSES 2019
Rang & Dale, Farmacologia
Clementi & Fumagalli, Farmacologia Generale e Molecolare
Panerai, Farmacologia generale, Raffaello Cortina editore
AK Abbas e AH Lichtman, Le basi dell'immunologia. EDRA editori, 2017.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The student preparation check consists of three independent written tests so structured:
Pharmacology: multiple choice questions (1 h);
Human Anatomy: four open questions (90 min);
Immunology: two open questions (90 min).
The final vote will take into account in equal measure the evaluation of the three educational modules.
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 72 hours

M - Z

Lesson period
First semester
Human anatomy
Commented Power Point presentations will be uploaded (asynchronous lessons) every week on ARIEL site (https://eafi.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx). Once a week (Thursday) there will be a 2h syncronous lesson on Microsoft Teams or Zoom to give explanations on some difficult topics and to organize Q&A sessions. The criteria to participate in the synchronous lessons will be presented in Ariel.
Pharmacology:
The lessons will be asynchronous, with commented power points uploaded weekly in the Ariel site.
Once every 2 weeks, ( Friday) there will be a synchronous lesson in the TEAMS platform, in order to give explanations.
The criteria to participate in the synchronous lessons will be presented in Ariel.

Immunology
Synchronous lessons will be available on the Moodle-SEB/Ariel platform and asynchronous lessons the week before the lesson. Synchronous lessons will be weekly unless students request further lessons in synchronous mode and they will take place on TEAMS or Zoom platforms for 1 hour (but can also cover 2 hours if necessary or requested by the students). They will be recorded and made available on TEAMs or Zoom platforms.
Course syllabus
Basics of Human Anatomy
Organization of the human body. Classification and anatomical organization of organs. Apparatuses or systems: definition and overview of their composition, organization and function. Anatomic terminology. Membranes and cavities of the human body. Anatomical planes and sections; main techniques of diagnostic imaging.
The cardiovascular system: general organization and functions; pulmonary and systemic circulation. Morphology and structure of the heart; superficial and internal anatomy of the heart; heart valves; intrinsic conduction system. Blood vessels classification and structure. Coronary circulation; systemic arterial and venous circulation; vascularization of the head, neck and brain.
The lymphatic system: functions and components. Lymph and lymphatic vessels. Morpho-functional characteristics of lymphatic, hematopoietic and hemocatheretic organs.
The nervous system: anatomical and functional organization. Central nervous system: spinal cord and brain with particular reference to cerebral cortex. Peripheral nervous system: anatomical and functional organization; sensory and motor components; SNS, ANS, ENS. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves. ANS or vegetative nervous system: functional components and anatomical subdivision.
The endocrine system: overview; comparison between the endocrine system and the nervous system. Morpho-functional characteristics of endocrine glands.

Basics of Pharmacology
The pathway of a drug from entering the body to its exit will be illustrated (Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) in relation to its characteristics and those of the subjects assuming them (pharmacogenetics). Concept of dose-response, therapeutic index, descriptive pharmacokinetics.
The main knowledges on drugs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics), possible targets and drug-drug interactions are explained.
The rational choice of drug use in specific diseases will be discussed as an example.

Basics of Immunology
Introduction to the immune system: immune cells, lymphoid tissue, cytokines.
Innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity and inflammation, the complement system. Elements of innate immunity. Phagocytes, complement system, barriers.
Cell mediated immune response. The development of T and B lymphocytes. Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. Antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes. T and B cell receptors. The development of lymphocyte repertoire. Major histocompatibility complex, functional role and diversity.
The structure of antibodies. Diversity in the humoral immune response.
Mechanism of action of antibodies.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have the basic knowledge of cytology, histology, general and animal physiology, biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Human Anatomy: Power point with comments uploaded in ARIEL.
2 hour/week meeting with Microsoft Teams or Zoom.

Pharmacology: Power point with comments uploaded in ARIEL.
1 hour/week meeting with TEAMS for explanation

Immunology:Power point with comments uploaded in ARIEL.
Teaching Resources
Anatomy.
Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Ed. Piccin, 2017
Marieb, Keller. Elementi di anatomia e fisiologia dell'uomo. Zanichelli, 2019
Martini, Tallitsch, Nath. Anatomia Umana, EdiSES 2019
Pharmacology:
Panerai, Farmacologia generale, Raffaello Cortina editore
Rang, Farmacologia
Katzung : farmacologia, Piccin
Immunology: AK Abbas e AH Lichtman, Fondamenti di immunologia, Masson Elsevier 2006


Rang, Farmacologia
Assessment methods and Criteria
Human Anatomy:
Human Anatomy: if the pandemic situation allows the access to the classrooms the written test (1h) will consist of three broad open questions (60%) and three specific open questions (40%). Alternatively, there will be a 10 minutes oral exam on Microsoft Teams or Zoom. Information regarding written or oral tests will be found in ARIEL website.

Pharmacology: 31 multiple choice questions (1 h); The exam will be on the platform Moodle-SEB

Immunology: Oral exam on TEAMs or ZOOM platform
The final vote will take into account in equal measure the evaluation of the three tests.
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 72 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
upon appointment by e-mail
Dept. of BioSciences, B tower, ground-level floor
Reception:
Every Monday, hours to be agreed by email
Teams Platform
Reception:
Monday, 14.30-16.30; Thursday, 14.30-15.30
via Vanvitelli 32