English II

A.Y. 2020/2021
9
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
L-LIN/12
Language
English
Learning objectives
This is a second-year, two-semester course which can be accessed once the first-year English language course has been completed. The aim of the course, which combines theoretical and applied perspectives, is to familiarise students with legal and institutional discourse in English. This means that students will have a chance to gain a good grounding in common law legal systems and the main principles underlying them, also comparing them with civil law systems, with special attention for linguistic aspects. Through lessons based on the analysis of authentic texts (statutes, contracts, judgments, arbitration awards, etc.), students will be equipped with the tools to understand the ways in which legal language is used in national, supranational and international contexts respectively and will be expected to acquire the ability to read and interpret legal texts, learning to handle their peculiar linguistic structures and specific vocabulary and phraseology. In the course component focusing on judiciary legal discourse and interpreting, students will develop the ability to translate oral legal texts in the consecutive mode, also taking notes wherever necessary. The investigation of institutional communication will illustrate the linguistic and discursive features of a variety of genres across different media, analysing them with the critical tools of Discourse Analysis.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will be able to: understand English legal documents that range from statutes to contracts and international instruments; understand and use English legal terminology; analyse and present legal and institutional cases in English; act as interpreters of oral legal discourse, including police interviews and court examinations.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
year
TEACHING METHODS
Lessons with the course professors will be held in synchronous mode on Microsoft Teams, according to the official timetable for each semester. They will be recorded and made available on the same platform also in asynchronous mode. At the course professors' discretion, lessons may be entirely held in the above format or alternate concise pre-recorded video lectures covering the topics of each week (recording of the teacher's desktop with audio commentary) to interactive moments of revision and in-depth analysis.
Language practice sessions and consecutive interpreting seminars will be held in synchronous mode on Microsoft Teams and Zoom.
Please refer to the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL: https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it for
- information on how to access lessons and language practice sessions
on Microsoft Teams and Zoom
- any updates about the latest Covid-19 safety regulations
- procedures and criteria to join lessons in attendance, if any, as
booking through an app will be required
- any further instructions concerning the course.

SYLLABUS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS
They will remain unchanged.

ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
If public health conditions allow, the written language skills test will be organised in presence.
The two speaking tests, the interim tests on course contents and the final oral exam will be held remotely until regular class attendance is resumed.
Any changes will be communicated in good time on the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL: https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it.
https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it for
- information on how to access lessons and language practice sessions
on Microsoft Teams and Zoom
- any updates about the latest Covid-19 safety regulations
- procedures and criteria to join lessons in attendance, if any, since
booking through an app will be required in that case
- any further instructions concerning the course.

SYLLABUS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS
They will remain unchanged.

ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
If public health conditions allow, the written language skills test will be organised in attendance.
The two oral language skills tests, the interim tests on course contents and the final oral exam will be held remotely until regular class attendance is resumed.
Any changes will be communicated in good time on the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL: https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it
Course syllabus
The syllabus covers two main areas: legal English (including legal interpreting) and institutional discourse, with special regard to critical-analytical approaches. The legal English component aims to develop skills in Language for Special Purposes. As for the other course component, institutional discourse (which also includes the use of language in legal settings) has been selected as the object of special attention because of its likely relevance in students' future professional lives.
The legal English component focuses on legal discourse in international organizational and corporate settings, looking both at written and oral genres, with special regard to interpreting. The topics covered are the following:
- an introduction to legal English and its use in different contexts, national supranational and international.
- legal language and discursive practices in international legal instruments (public and private).
- distinctive features of normative texts - international conventions, international contracts, international arbitration texts (arbitration rules, awards).
- discussion of case studies. Production of written and oral text in order to practice the skills acquired in the unit.
- oral genres in the legal and judiciary context: court pleadings, police interviews, public enquiries, court examinations.
- the interpreter's role in the judicial context.
- the interpreter in the police interview in the UK, in other European countries and in the US.
- the interpreter in the courtroom, in adversarial vs inquisitorial systems: professional and ethical issues.
- interpretation strategies.
- case studies and role plays/simulations.

The remaining part of the course focuses on institutional discourse across genres and media. This part of the course explores the theoretical and practical aspects of institutional discourse, in a discourse-analytic perspective, taking into consideration texts and case studies belonging to different genres and communicated through different media. This will provide an opportunity to learn terminology, phraseology and syntactic patterns, and become aware of communicative strategies and discursive practices used in a variety of institutional settings. Relevant texts will be provided throughout the course.
Prerequisites for admission
The course builds on the competences developed in the first-year English language course. The entry level for the course is set at C1 level of the CEFR (minimum requirement). A working knowledge of Italian is also required. The exit level is set at C1plus/C2 of the CEFR, with special reference to legal and institutional domains. The self-assessment grid for CEFR levels can be found here: https://www.coe.int/en/web/common-european-framework-reference-language….
Teaching methods
The course comprises lectures, seminars and language training sessions. All teaching is in English (except where interpreting training is concerned, where the combination EN-IT is used).

Students will attend 30 lectures (60 hours) over two semesters with the course professors.

Language practice sessions (60 hours over two semesters) are scheduled in addition to the course. Additional training sessions, focusing on consecutive interpreting techniques, will be provided in the second semester. Students are strongly advised to attend language practice sessions and consecutive interpreting seminars. Please note that some of the skills taught in the course for which training is provided in seminars and practice sessions are very technical and require extensive practice.
Detailed information about the materials to be used in language practice sessions will be provided at the beginning of the academic year.
Reference grammar
Martin Hewings, Advanced Grammar in Use, with answers, Cambridge University Press, 2005 (the edition with a CD-ROM is recommended). [to be noted: this textbook was already used in the first-year English 1 course).
Students who are unable to attend the language practice sessions must contact Prof. M.C. Paganoni for guidance on how to prepare for the exam.
Course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL: https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it.
Teaching Resources
1. Legal English:
Garzone, Giuliana, Salvi, Rita and Turnbull, Janet (2007, second edition). Legal English. Milan: EGEA (chapters 1, 3, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16).
1.a Legal English in interpreting settings:
Cotterill, Jane (ed.) (2002). Language in the Legal Process. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan (chapters 6, 7 and 8).
Garzone, Giuliana (2011). "Professional Discourses in Contact: Interpreters in the Legal and Medical Setting". In Candlin, Christpher N. and Sarangi, Srikant (eds) Handbook of Communication in Organisations and Professions. Berlin: Mouton-De Gruyter, pp. 319-340.
Hale, Sandra Beatriz (2007). Community Interpreting. London: Palgrave Macmillan (chapter 3).
Brannan, James (2010). "ECHR Case-Law on the Right to Language Assistance in Criminal Proceedings and the EU Response". Presentation made at the AIIC seminar in October 2010, available at https://eulita.eu.

1.b. For an introduction to consecutive interpreting and the note-taking method:
Garzone, Giuliana, Santulli, Francesca e Damiani, Daniela (1999). La Terza Lingua: Metodo di Stesura degli Appunti e Traduzione Consecutiva. Milano: Cisalpino Istituto Editoriale Universitario, pp. 38-96; 145-167; 172 -211.

1.c. all materials used in class and uploaded to the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL. To be noted: these materials are an integral part of the syllabus and, as such, will be tested in depth.

2. Discorso istituzionale:
2.a. Sutherland, Sean. 2015. A Beginner's Guide to Discourse Analysis. London: Red Globe Press.

2.b. all materials used in class and uploaded to the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL. To be noted: these materials are an integral part of the syllabus and, as such, will be tested in depth.

For further information about materials, reading lists and assessment modes and criteria please refer to the course website on the e-learning platform ARIEL: https://li2lin.ariel.ctu.unimi.it.
Legal English:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Assessment, which results in a mark out of thirty, is exam-based and consists of a FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION with the course subject professors during official exam sessions. Only students who have passed the THREE LANGUAGE SKILLS TESTS (written and spoken) and the THREE INTERIM TESTS ON COURSE CONTENTS will be allowed to sit the oral exam (more details below).
During the oral examination the course professors will test both the theoretical notions discussed in the course and the ability to apply such knowledge to real communicative situations. Interim evaluations of course contents will be carried out by means of computer-based tests at the end of each of the three course units, during both semesters.
In order to take the exam successfully students will need to
a. show proficient command of the language varieties and theoretical instruments taught in the course;
b. demonstrate their ability to analyse and discuss legal case studies autonomously using appropriate analytical categories;
c. analyse a contemporary text of their choice from the institutional domain, related to the topics dealt with in the course, using the methodological tools introduced therein (Discourse Analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis, Critical Discourse Studies) and presenting it in an adequate way (approximately 5 minutes).

PRELIMINARY LANGUAGE SKILLS TESTS
The three tests are organised as follows:

1.a. WRITTEN TEST: summary and translation
The written test is composed of two parts.
The first part (60 minutes) involves writing a summary of a written text on a legal topic (e.g. the report of a legal case), of about 250-300 words. The summary will be assessed on the basis of the following criteria: ability to grasp and synthesise text contents; ability to reformulate them without altering or reducing them; grammatical correctness; variety and appropriateness of lexicon and phraseology used; textual cohesion. For this part a monolingual dictionary may be used.
The second part (60 minutes) involves the translation of a non technical legal text (e.g. an article on a topical legal issue or on a general problem having legal implications) of about 150 words published in the media, or downloaded from the Internet. For this part, a bilingual (Italian/English) dictionary may be used.

1.b. FIRST SPEAKING TEST: professional presentation
The test consists of an argumentative oral presentation, lasting from 4 to 5 minutes max, using slides or a presentation programme such as PowerPoint. The student prepares and delivers a presentation on a topic dealt with in the course or in the language practice sessions. At the end of the presentation the student will be asked some questions, prompting further illustration of aspects of the presentation.

1.c. SECOND SPEAKING TEST: consecutive interpreting from English to Italian
Students will be tested on the technique of consecutive interpreting (oral or written translation from English into Italian of a monologic or dialogic legal text, e.g. a comment, a report, an interview, a court examination). The text will be read twice.

INTERIM TESTS ON COURSE CONTENTS
Computer-based interim tests on course contents will be held at the end of each component of the course (legal discourse for Units 1 and 2; institutional discourse for Unit 3). Marks obtained in the interim tests will go towards the formulation of the final mark. Students who have not taken the computer-based interim tests during the course will sit the same tests during regular exam sessions before the final oral examination. The oral exam cannot be broken down into separate units.

Only students who have completed English 1 are allowed to sit the three language skills tests, the interim tests on course contents and the final oral examination. It is strongly recommended that student complete their English 1 exam by the September session.

Students after an Erasmus stay who need to sit only a part of English 2 to obtain the missing credits are required to arrange their programme with the course professors in good time, submitting the DETAILED syllabus of the exam taken abroad to prof. M.C. Paganoni.
L-LIN/12 - LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - ENGLISH - University credits: 9
Lessons: 60 hours
Educational website(s)