Linguistics

A.Y. 2020/2021
9
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
L-LIN/01
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims at providing a basic training and learning in linguistics, and it leads to further deepening either in the field of linguistic sciences, or in the reflection about the (phonological, morpho-syntactical, lexical) structures of individual languages. The course aims at offering a deeper knowledge of the structural features and of the main phenomena shown by natural languages, in such a way to observe and to describe them according to a synchronic and a diachronic approach. This should be done also taking into consideration the history of linguistic thought and the different theoretical models that have charachterized the Western tradition.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to identify, describe and explain specific structural features and phenomena specifically exhibited by individual languages, following either a diachronic and synchronic approach, and he/she will have to link them to the general categories of linguistic analysis and description, to classify them with regard to the different methods and hermeneutic approaches of linguistic disciplines, and to describe them with an adequate and precise metalanguage.
Course syllabus and organization

(A-D)

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
The course will be held mainly by online synchronous lectures using the platform Zoom, with the exception of some asynchronous lessons (video lessons). Students are required to sign up for the course using the app EasyLesson.
Course syllabus
The course is entitled "The human language and the historic-natural languages between synchrony and diachrony" and is structured in 3 parts:

Part A (20 hours, 3 cfu): The architecture of human language
Part B (20 hours, 3 cfu): Language change: aspects and issues
Part C (20 hours, 3 cfu): Comparative-historical linguistics: methods and results

The three parts are indivisible. The course takes place in the first semester.
The course aims to provide a general introduction to linguistics and ideally represents for the students the occasion to acquire the theoretical prerequisites necessary to face other courses focusing on language science or on the linguistic structure of single languages.
The topics presented the course deals with will provide to the students:

a) theoretical and empirical tools for the analysis of the human language, of its structures and of its use
b) knowledge of the metalinguistic terminology in use in linguistics now and in the past
c) awareness of language change and methodology to describe it
d) specific abilities in applying the comparative methods to Indo-European languages

This program is valid until February 2022.
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of Italian language.
Teaching methods
The course is held in Italian and adopts the following teaching methods: frontal lessons, with theoretical explanations and analysis and discussion of linguistic data.
Teaching Resources
G. Berruto - M. Cerruti, La linguistica. Un corso introduttivo, Novara, UTET Università, 2011 or later edtions.
- E. Banfi - N. Grandi, Lingue d'Europa. Elementi di storia e di tipologia linguistica, Roma, Carocci, 2003 or later edtions.
- F. Fanciullo, Introduzione alla linguistica storica, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2013 or later edtions.
- G. Graffi, Breve storia della linguistica, Roma, Carocci, 2019, chapters 5-7 (L'Ottocento, La prima metà del Novecento, La linguistica contemporanea).
- teaching materials pubblished on the platfom Ariel.

Non attending students will replace the materials pubblished on the platform Ariel with the study of the following book:

- R. Lazzeroni (a cura di), Linguistica storica, Roma, Carocci, 2002 or later edtions, chapters I (R. Lazzeroni, Il mutamento linguistico), III (R. Gusmani, Interlinguistica) e V (E. De Felice, Onomastica)

Non-attending students are requested to meet prof. Andrea Scala during his office hours before starting to study the exam program.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final assessment will derive from an individual oral exam concerning the contents of the program. The exam language is Italian. During the exam the teacher will pose questions and will request the students to analyze properly linguistic data. The duration of the oral exam can vary, but is generally estimated in 30 mins. The oral exam aims to verify the knowledge acquired by the students in the basic topics of linguistics and their capability to apply methods of linguistic description and analysis to linguistic data both in synchronic and diachronic perspective. The final evaluation will be expressed in thirtieths and can be refused by the student (in that case the result of the exam will registered as "ritirato", i.e. retreated). International students and Erasmus incoming students are invited to contact the teacher in charge of the course in a timely manner. The examination procedures for students with disabilities, including learning disabilities, must be agreed with the teacher, in agreement with the competent office.
Unita' didattica A
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica B
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica C
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours

(E-O)

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Teaching methods:
During the emergency teaching phase, the program is maintained with the following changes necessary for a good online use of the course (originally designed for face-to-face teaching):
The lessons will take place on Microsoft Teams (or Zoom) mostly in synchronous mode, at established times, and will be recorded and available on the platform itself in asynchronous mode. Information on how to access Microsoft Teams lessons and other instructions will be uploaded to the course's ARIEL site. In the event that, taking into account the evolution of the epidemic and in compliance with the relevant regulations, it should be possible to carry out activities in the classroom, students will be promptly informed via ARIEL. Lessons may also include pre-recorded materials.
Program and reference material:
The course program is unchanged. The content of the individual lessons could be modified according to the teaching methods described above.
Reference materials are unchanged.
Learning assessment procedures and assessment criteria:
The methods for verifying learning and the assessment criteria will not be subject to change, it being understood that the oral exam will take place in person or through Microsoft Teams (or Zoom) according to the directives in force at the time of the exam.
Course syllabus
The course is entitled "Introduction to Language sciences" and consists of the following three teaching units, which will be approached in sequence:
Teaching unit A: Institutions of theoretical linguistics: elements of phonetics, phonology and morphology.
Teaching unit B: Institutions of theoretical linguistics: elements of syntax, typology, semantics and pragmatics.
Teaching unit C: The historical-comparative method and the Indo-European linguistic family. Reading of a text with linguistic analysis (from Wulfila's Bible).
The course is adressed to students of the Degree course in Lingue e letterature straniere whose surnames begin with the letters E-O, it takes place in the first semester and consists of three indivisible teaching units. The course involves the compulsory acquisition of 9 credits, so students will comply with the complete program. Students who intend to acquire only 6 credits will agree with the teacher which units they have to prepare.
Unit A will deal with the organs of phonation, phones production and phonetic representations (IPA and other phonetic transcription systems); the definition and organization of phonemes; the definition of linguistic significant units (morphemes) and the formation of words.
Unit B will deal with the definition of phrases and the principles and processes that govern the structure of the sentence; the relationship between syntax and semantic-pragmatic aspects; the typological classification of languages based on the formation of words and the order of the major constituents of the sentence.
Unit C will deal with the beginnings of historical-comparative linguistics and the clues that led to establishing relations between related languages and the "discovery" of language families. Reading of a text with linguistic analysis will constitute an example of the application of the theory.
The course program is valid until February 2022.
Prerequisites for admission
The course is held entirely in Italian. The exam materials and bibliography presuppose grammatical skills that each student possesses in relation to the functioning of their own language, of other languages they have learned, and in the basic linguistic analysis skills acquired in lower study courses.
Teaching methods
The course adopts the following teaching methods: frontal lessons.
Teaching Resources
The course has a site on the online platform for teaching https://ariel.unimi.it/, to which reference is made for teaching materials provided by the teacher.
Below are the manuals and other readings for the various teaching units.
Teaching Unit A:
1) G. Graffi-S. Scalise, Le lingue e il linguaggio, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2nd ed. (2003) o 3rd ed. (2013), chapters 1-6.
2)P. Maturi, I suoni delle lingue, i suoni dell'italiano. Nuova introduzione alla fonetica (3a ed.), Bologna, il Mulino, 2014.
3) A. Nocentini, L'Europa linguistica: profilo storico e tipologico, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2002 (or later editions).
4) teaching materials, downloadable from the teaching portal "Ariel".
Teaching Unit B:
1) G. Graffi-S. Scalise, Le lingue e il linguaggio, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2nd ed. (2003) or 3rd ed. (2013), chapters 7-10.
2) Booklet of the course.
3)C. Cecchetto, Introduzione alla Sintassi. La Teoria dei Principi e dei Parametri, Milano, LED, 2002.
4) teaching materials, downloadable from the teaching portal "Ariel".

Teaching Unit C:
1) S. Luraghi, Introduzione alla linguistica storica, Roma, Carocci, 2006 (or later editions).
2) G. Graffi, Breve storia della linguistica, Roma, Carocci, 2019.
3) teaching materials, downloadable from the teaching portal "Ariel".

The final version of the reference material program will be published in ARIEL.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of an individual interview, which includes questions asked by the teacher and interactions between the teacher and the student. The interview has a variable duration depending on the teaching units, and takes place in Italian. The interview aims to verify knowledge of the topics covered during the course, the ability to identify and analyze the relevant phenomena and the precision in the use of specific terminology. The final mark is expressed in thirtieths, and the student has the right to reject it (in this case it will be recorded as "ritirato"). International or Erasmus incoming students are invited to promptly contact the teacher. The examination procedures for students with disabilities and / or with DSA must be agreed with the teacher, in agreement with the competent Office.
Unita' didattica A
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica B
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica C
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours

(P-Z)

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
The course will be held in Italian, in remote mode, mainly in asynchronous lessons, by publishing PPT audiotexts on the Ariel website of the course. Synchronous lessons (about every 15 days) are also planned on the platforms Zoom/Microsoft Teams. Students will find on the Ariel website all the information concerning the course, the schedule of the lessons, all the details and updates of the activities, and any changes to the syllabus and the teaching material.
Course syllabus
The course aims at providing a basic learning in Linguistics with regard to the main structural properties (phonological, morphological, syntactical, lexical) and phenomena of natural languages, proposed and observed according to either a synchronic or a diachronic approach, and to their specific metalanguage. This should be done also taking into consideration the history of Western Linguistics and the different theoretical models that have charachterized it, such as historical-comparative paradigm, typological paradigm, and areal approach. The course also deals, for that reason, either with main structures and facts common to the Indoeuropean family, or with other fields and topics of historical Linguistics such as linguistic change, linguistic variation, and linguistic contact.
Prerequisites for admission
None.
Teaching methods
The course is taught by frontal lessons in Italian. Teaching materials are also available online on the Ariel e-learning platform of the course, in order to give the students tools and occasions for a deeper reflection and critical awareness.
Teaching Resources
Didactic Section A:
.G. Berruto - M. Cerruti, La linguistica. "Un corso introduttivo", Novara, UTET Università, 2017 (sec.ed.).
.F. Fanciullo, "Introduzione alla linguistica storica", Bologna, Il Mulino, 2013.
.E. Banfi - N. Grandi, "Lingue d'Europa. Elementi di storia e di tipologia linguistica", Roma, Carocci, 2003 (repr. 2015).
.G. Graffi, "Breve storia della linguistica", Roma, Carocci, 2019, chapters 1, 5-7 (pp. 13-16, 107-230).

Didactic Section B:
.G. Berruto - M. Cerruti, "La linguistica. Un corso introduttivo", Novara, UTET Università, 2017 (sec.ed.).
.F. Fanciullo, "Introduzione alla linguistica storica", Bologna, Il Mulino, 2013.
.E. Banfi - N. Grandi, "Lingue d'Europa. Elementi di storia e di tipologia linguistica", Roma, Carocci, 2003 (repr. 2015).

Didactic Section C:
.G. Berruto - M. Cerruti, "La linguistica. Un corso introduttivo", Novara, UTET Università, 2017 (sec.ed.).
.F. Fanciullo, "Introduzione alla linguistica storica", Bologna, Il Mulino, 2013.
.E. Banfi - N. Grandi, "Lingue d'Europa. Elementi di storia e di tipologia linguistica", Roma, Carocci, 2003 (repr. 2015).

- Teaching materials are available online on the e-learning Ariel platform of the course.

This program is available till february 2022.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam involves an oral, individual interview in Italian, in order to verify either learning outcomes concerning the specific topics proposed by units A, B and C, or the ability to report them with critical and autonomous awareness, by using a precise and adequate metalanguage. The oral exam involves also the phonetic transcription of an Italian word, by using IPA symbols.
Unita' didattica A
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica B
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica C
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours