Pharmacological and toxicological biotechnology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The main objective of the course will be to provide the pharmacological bases of therapeutics and the pharmacological profiles of the most used drugs. For each topic we will provide a description of the physio pathologic aspects of the disease, mechanisms of drug action, posology and side effects of the main drugs used for the cure of the disease.
Another key object of the Course will be to discuss the main problems associated with drug-drug interactions, as well as the mechanisms that may be responsible for side effects and tolerability, as well as those that will contribute to the therapeutic response to a given drug. The course aims also to provide the fundamentals of some of the new methodologies that are used for the development of new drugs or new therapeutic strategies, and for the evaluation of the effect of pharmacologically active compounds. This objective will be pursued through the integration of frontal lessons with single-place practical exercises. In the practical exercises the student will become familiar with the use of databases of molecular biology and bibliography. A further objective of the course is that of providing a basic knowledge of the general principles of toxicology and organ toxicity, with a special focus on the toxicological issues associated with biopharmaceutical-based therapies.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student must demonstrate to possess adequate knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy of the disorders presented during the course, as well as to have the ability to comprehend problems associated with pharmacological treatments. Moreover, the student must be able to apply basic knowledge to deal with pharmacological issues related to treatment. The student will also have a good knowledge of the main biotechnological techniques used for the development and study of drugs, as well as of new therapeutic strategies. He/she will also be able to search the appropriate databases to get information on the genome, transcriptome and proteome, as well as to draw primers to run a PCR. Last, he/she should be able to show abilities in exposing and communicating his/her knowledge
The students are also expected to possess an adequate knowledge of the general principles of toxicology, organ toxicity, and toxicology associated with biopharmaceutical-based therapies. Based on this knowledge, the students must be able to critically analyse toxicological issues.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
Frontal teaching for the "Toxicology" part. Use of "Zoom meeting" for "Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy" and "Pharmacological methodologies" parts.
Course syllabus
PART: 'K06-38-A' - 'Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy'.
Introduction to pharmacology
Schizophrenia and antipsychotic drugs;
Sedative and anxiolytic drugs;

PART: 'K06-38-B' - 'Pharmacological methodologies'.
Frontal teaching
Research and development of new drugs. Research phases: pre-clinical, clinical (phases I-IV).
Search of bibliographic sources through databases
Generation of genetically modified animals
Antibody generation and use (such as drugs and in methodologies such as immunohistochemistry, Elisa, W.B., flow cytometry, etc.)
Coronary revascularization techniques with drug-eluting stent implantation and methods of studying platelet function
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics
Proteome analysis: clinical and pharmacological aspects
Massa, MALDI and ESI sources.
Molecular basis for personalized therapies
Use of molecular biology databases for the design of primers for PCR reactions.
Methods for the evaluation of platelet function for antithrombotic drugs

PART: 'K06-38-C' - 'Toxicology'.
Exposure, absorption, distribution, excretion of toxic substances.
Biotransformations: detoxification and bioactivation.
Genotoxicity and mutagenesis.
Experimental protocols of toxicological studies: acute toxicity, medium and long term toxicity
Liver toxicology
Toxicology of the nervous system
Pulmonary toxicology
Skin toxicology
Food allergies and intolerances
Toxicology of biotechnological products
Gene therapy: toxicological aspects
Mood disorders and antidepressant drugs;
Antiparkinsonian drugs;
Drugs for Alzheimer's disease
Epilepsy and anticonvulsant drugs
Drugs for asthma
Antihypertensive drugs
Antithrombotic drugs
Nonsteroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antitumor drugs
Antidiabetic agents
Drugs for treatment of hyperlipidemia
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have knowledge related to biochemistry, physiology, pathology, and general pharmacology
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and practical courses in laboratory.
Teaching Resources
"FARMACOLOGIA Principi di base e applicazioni terapeutiche" Rossi, Cuomo, Riccardi - Minerva Medica, 2011.
"Farmacologia Generale e Clinica" Katzung B.G. - VI edizione italiana, 2011.
"The pharmacological basis of therapeutics" Goodman & Gilman Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc: New York. Online text.
Casarett & Doull's. Toxicology, McGraw-Hill.

Iconographic material in digital format provided by the teacher and available on the ARIEL website.
Assessment methods and Criteria
For the parts of "Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy" and "Pharmacological methodologies", the examination will be carried out by the teacher and will consist of about 30 minutes of discussion on different topics of the courses. A mark of not less than 18/30 will be required for passing the oral exam.
For the "Toxicology" part, the exam consists of a written test, in which you will be asked to answer four open questions, aimed at ascertaining the candidate's knowledge of the topics covered during the course. The exam is considered passed if a sufficient answer to at least three questions will be provided.
The final mark will be calculated as the average of the marks acquired in the individual parts.
Methods in pharmacology
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 3
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Camera Marina
Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Gardoni Fabrizio
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Monday 9.00 a.m.
Via Balzaretti 9, DiSFeB