Security and intelligence policies

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course has the following learning objectives:
1) to provide students with the main notions related to security (risk, control, order, protection, trust), as different disciplines (history of political doctrines, sociology, criminology, criminal law, constitutional law) has dealt with them;
2) to provide students with the knowledge of the main anti-mafia and anti-terrorism policies by reconstructing institutional practices and the role of civil society;
3) to develop the ability to read critically the institutional and media representations of the ""security issue"" and of the information agencies' activities
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding of: the main problems that security issues raise at national and international level; the theoretical and political apparatus underpinning security policies (contrast and prevention); the media and political construction of fear and of security's need; the organizational structures of law enforcement agencies; the private security market; the direct and indirect anti-mafia policies; the counter-terrorism policies (in particular the intelligence's activities)
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding in relation to the main issues that raise the issue of security at national and international level; ability to deconstruct media and ideological representations of security problems; ability to identify the limits of anti-mafia and anti-terrorism policies.
During the course, group activities and presentations are proposed to consolidate and communicate what has been learned
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Third trimester
Didactic methods. The lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both synchronously based on the first quarter timetable and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform.

Program and reference material. The program and reference material will not change.
Methods for verifying learning and evaluation criteria. The final exam will take place orally using the Microsoft Teams platform or, where possible, in person. The oral exam on the first part of the course will be preceded by a thoughtful and reworking written exam, to be sent to the teacher according to the methods agreed during the course.
Course syllabus
The course is divided into two parts. The first part offers a general overview of the security issue through a multidisciplinary perspective. The second part focuses on intelligence activities.
In the first part, the course will address the key concepts linked to the notion of security (risk, control, order, protection, trust). It will develop in particular the concept of complexity of security strategies, analyzing their multiformity and integration characteristics and dealing with the growing demand for security in contemporary society and the response that is given to it on a public and private level.
Finally, it will offer a general overview of anti-mafia policies (direct and indirect).
The second part will first illustrate the institutional action against internal terrorism in the so-called 'anni di piombo', illustrating the self-organization and the specialization of the judiciary and police forces, and also referring to the so-called "Emergency legislation".
Afterwards the course will deal with the general characteristics of the institutional response to the recent phenomenon of international terrorism (so-called "Islamic terrorism"), with rejection of the war on terror theory and clarification on the related legislative choices.
Therefore, it will address the distinction between security needs (prevention) and needs to identify the culprits (criminal investigations), outlining the different competences of the information agencies, for prevention purposes (ex Law 124/2007), and those of the judicial police bodies for criminal investigation purposes. Also it will considered the difference between the judicial authorities and information agencies and the tools for international collaboration.
The case of the abduction of Abu Omar (Milan, 17.2.2003) will be analyzed, a typical example of violation of fundamental rights in the name of security, with references to the procedural outcome, also before the ECHR, of the affair.
Moreover attention will be directed to the study of the Feinstein report of the US Senate of December 2014 on torture and extraordinary rendition that allowed to reveal the illegal conduct adopted by the CIA in the name of security.
Finally, the course will propose some reflections on the themes of prevention measures in the anti-terrorism and anti-mafia fields, immigration policies and the relationship between information and security; and finally it will take into consideration the security reasons that have determined the recent legislative measures on the coronavirus pandemic"
Prerequisites for admission
No specific requirements
Teaching methods
Frontal and interactive lectures aimed not only at transmitting the contents of the course to students, but also at developing the critical ability to identify the gap between security policies and institutional practices. During the course there will be lectures given by scholars, experts in the subject, and institutional representatives. Furthermore, multimedia tools will be used.
Teaching Resources
For attending students
First part:
1) Ceretti A., Cornelli R., Oltre la paura, Feltrinelli, Milano, 2013; 2) dalla Chiesa N., La sicurezza come variabile dipendente: la lotta alla mafia tra asimmetrie ed emergenze, in "Studi sulla questione criminale", 2012, n.1. Further material will be provided by the teacher during the course.
Second part:
Spataro A., Special lecture notes for the course, with anthology of the teacher's writings, 2020.
Further material will be provided by the teacher during the course.
For not attending students:
First part: the same
Second part: the same

sicurezza della Repubblica e nuova disciplina del segreto "
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam in order to test:
- the understanding of the main notions relating to security issues;
- the acquisition of the complexity of the levels and forms of setting up and implementing security strategies: from territorial control to social cohesion
- the awareness of media and political mechanisms of fear of crime and the need for security;
- the knowledge of the organizational structures of law enforcement agencies and private security management systems;
- the knowledge and critical understanding of some anti-mafia and anti-terrorism policies (in particular the activities of the intelligence agencies)
Lessons: 40 hours