Analytical Chemistry

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The primary objective of this course is to introduce the basic concepts, principles and techniques of analytical chemistry
that will be better examined and experimentally applied in the following courses with teaching chemistry lab.
Students will be especially provided with principles and techniques of classical qualitative and quantitative inorganic analysis and with basic concepts instrumental analysis. The aim is to provide students with an analytical mind shape and with skills to solve different analytical problems such as identification and quantification of several components in medications.
Expected learning outcomes
On successful completion of this course, students will be able to:
1)set the chemical reactions and mathematical equations in order to solve analytical problems,
2)understand and discern different analytical methods, both classical and instrumental methods, to be employed in the following teaching laboratory courses,
3)understand the importance of analytical chemistry in medications and to practice as pharmacists.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Lesson period
Second semester
Prerequisites, Program, Textbooks and Materials are unchanged.
Course syllabus
Introduction - Significant figures and rounding. Ionic strenght. Activity and activity coefficients. Debye-Hückel equation.
Ionic equilibria - Acid-base equilibria (Strong and weak acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Buffer solutions. Distribution diagrams). Solubility equilibria (Solubilities vs. solubility products. Common ion effect. Ionic strenght vs. solubility. Simultaneous equilibria in precipitation. Simple and complex precipitation). Simultaneous solubility-acidity equilibria (Solubility relation on pH). Complexation equilibria (Review on ligands and chelating agents. Formation and dissociation constants. Ion masking). Simultaneous solubility-complexation and acidity-complexation equilibria (Conditional-formation constants. Replacing reactions). Redox equilibria (Oxidizing and reducing agents. Galvanic cells. Standard redox potentials. Nernst equation. Formal redox potentials).
General methods in quantitative chemical analysis - Gravimetric analysis (Basic principles. Crystalline and colloidal precipitates). Volumetric analysis (Basic principles. Acid-base titrations. Precipitation titrations with Ag+. EDTA titrations. Redox titrations. Calculated values in a titration curve. Equivalence and final titration points. Chemical indicators).
Instrumental quantitative chemical analysis - Electrochemical methods (Potentiometry. Direct potentiometric measurements. Reference electrodes. Indicators electrodes. Glass electrode. Ion-selective electrodes. Calibration line. Added solutions method. Potentiometric titrations.). Spectroscopic methods (Properties of light, absorption and emission of radiation. Transmittance and adsorbance. Lambert-Beer's law. Atomic spectroscopy).
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledge of physics and mathematics. In-depth knowledge of all the topics covered in the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry.
Teaching methods
The course is conposed of classroom lectures and exercises. The topics are illustrated with slides and by carrying out exercises on the blackboard. During the course of the exercises, the method of discussion and the tutorial approach, with targeted questions, will also be used in order to stimulate students and to make the learning of the exposed concepts more interactive and personalized.
Teaching Resources
Recommended textbooks:
- D.C. Harris, Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 9th Edition, 2016, W.H. Freeman and Co.
- D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, F.J. Holler, S.R. Crouch, Foundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th Edition, 2014, Brooks/Cole.
- exercise book:
Silvia Araneo, Esercizi per la Chimica Analitica con richiami di teoria. Soc. Ed. Esculapio, 2° edizione 2018.

Reference books:
- General and Inorganic Chemistry and Stoichiometry course textbooks.
- A. Araneo, Chimica Analitica Qualitativa. Ed.C.E.A. (3° ed.)
- Pastore, Di Marco, Bombi, Chimica analitica. Trattazione algebrica e grafica degli equilibri chimici in soluzione acquosa. EdiSES
- Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana,(F.U.)

Teaching materials in Ariel platform
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists on a written test, lasting about 2.5 houres, usually the student is asked to solve 4 exercises and to answer 2 open questions regarding the theoretical part of the course. By solving the exercises, the student will have to demonstrate able to set chemical reactions and mathematical equations, to solve analytical problems and to understand and to recognize the different analytical methods, both traditional and instrumental, describing them correctly. A short discussion concerning the written test closes the exam.
CHIM/01 - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 8
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Araneo Silvia Rosa

Linea MZ

Lesson period
Second semester
Lectures will be delivered in presence and synchronously through the Microsoft Teams platform accordingly with Rectoral Decrees.
The exam test will consist of three numerical exercises and two open-ended questions. The duration will be 2 hours in presence.
Course syllabus
Statistical analyses of experimental data: errors in chemical analyses, statistical error treatment, confidence intervals, error propagation, t test, variance analysis.
Samples and analytical methods: sampling, standardization, calibration, sources and treatment of the error in the analytical process, characteristics of an analytical method (accuracy, precision, specificity and selectivity, linearity range, robustness).
Chemical equilibria: aqueous solutions, buffer solutions, multiple equilibria.
Classic methods of analysis: gravimetric analysis, titrations, neutralization titrations, complex acid / base systems, complexation and precipitation reactions and titrations. Applications.
Electrochemical methods: redox reactions, electrochemical cells, standard electrode reactions. Calculation of the potentials of electrochemical cells, equilibrium constants and the redox titration curve. Applications.
Spectroscopy analysis: electromagnetic radiation, radiation absorption, electromagnetic radiation emission, instruments for optical spectroscopy, molecular absorption spectroscopy, UV-visible and IR fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic spectroscopy, atomic and molecular mass spectrometry (principles, instrumentation and applications).
Separations: analytical separations by precipitation, extraction, ion exchange, chromatography (liquid and gas chromatography). Instruments and detectors. Applications.
Prerequisites for admission
The general inorganic chemistry course is a prerequisite for full understanding of the lessons. In addition, students should have acquired the basics of mathematics and physics.
Teaching methods
The course is organized in lectures (48 hours) and tutorials (32 hours) in which the theoretical principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis and their applications will be illustrated. Numerical exercises related to analytical problems will also be performed in order to deepen the theoretical concepts covered in the course.
Teaching Resources
Recommended books: Holler, Crouch - Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Skoog & West; Harris - Chimica analitica quantitativa - 3° Ed - Zanichelli (2017);
Slides uploaded to the Ariel's website
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam test will consist of three numerical exercises and two open-ended questions. The duration will be 2 hours. The exam aims to assess the achievement of the following learning outcomes: knowledge of the procedures for processing and evaluating experimental data; the knowledge of the main complex in the solution of chemical balances and the ability to solve the problems that involve them; knowledge of the basic principles and procedures of the most important classical and instrumental analytical techniques; the ability to establish the most suitable technique to solve a specific analytical problem; the ability to use the analytical language to describe analytical methods and report the result correctly and unequivocally.
CHIM/01 - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 8
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: D'Amato Alfonsina