Applied microbiology and hygiene

A.Y. 2021/2022
10
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/19 MED/42
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
In this course, students will acquire basic knowledge of microbiology. The students will learn about the structure and the function of the prokaryotic cell and will familiarize with the metabolic and physiological diversity of prokaryotes. Key concepts on genetics will be also offered to students. Overall these concepts represent tools to understand the applications of microbiology in the medical, pharmaceutical and diagnostic fields as well as in food industry.
The course will also introduce the students to the fundamental mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, the main infectious diseases and host immune defenses. Such knowledge is relevant for an effective management and control of infectious diseases.
Expected learning outcomes
On successful completion of this course, the student will have acquired basic knowledge in microbiology and will know in details the functioning of the prokaryotic cell. Moreover, the student will become familiar with the most important infectious diseases and the strategies for their control.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
year
Course syllabus
APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
· Introduction to microbiology. Role of microbiology in applied sciences.
· Microscopy applied to microbiology.
· Structure and function of microbial cells. Bacterial Cell Surface Structures: cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes. Cell Inclusions: Gas Vesicles; Endospores. Microbial locomotion: flagella and gliding motility; chemotaxis and phototaxis. Cytoplasm. Ribosomes and polysomes.
· Microbial growth. Laboratory culture of microorganisms. Culture media. Disinfection and sterilization.
· Microbial nutrition and metabolism. Respiration and fermentation. C and N assimilation.
· The nucleoid. Organization and structures of prokaryotic chromosomes. Plasmids. Replication of DNA in prokaryotic organisms. DNA supercoiling; transcription and translation and their inhibitors.
· Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control.
· Bacterial genetics: mutations, mutagens and mutants. Transposable elements. Recombination. Horizontal gene transfer. Transformation. Conjugation. Bacteriophages: lytic and lysogenic cycle. Generalized and specialized transduction.
· Introduction to genetic engineering: DNA cloning, restriction enzymes and DNA ligases, cloning and expression vectors, genomic and cDNA libraries, PCR cloning, site-directed mutagenesis.
· Microorganism-host interactions. Commensalism and mutualism, human microbiota. Parasitism, pathogenesis and virulence. Endotoxins and exotoxins.
· Antibiotic drugs. Mechanism of action. Resistance to antibiotics.
· Viral infections. Viral replication cycle: adhesion, entry, genome replication, assembly and release. Antiviral drugs and their mechanism of action.

HYGIENE
Introduction to Hygiene. Health and diseases. Public health.
· Demographic studies.
· Descriptive epidemiology: measures of frequency, ratios, proportions, crude and adjusted rates. Disease prevalence and incidence.
· Anaytic and experimental epidemiology. Causality criteria. Cross-sectional vs longitudinal studies. Cohort and case-control studies. Relative risk and odds ratio. Clinical trials and preventive interventions.
· Preventive medicine and promotion of health. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Mass screening campaigns. Sensitivity and specificity of screening tests. Oncological screening programs in Italy.
· General epidemiology of infectious diseases. The epidemiological transition. Koch's postulates. The chain of infection. Sources and reservoirs of infection. Modes of transmission. Patterns of infectious disease occurence: endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases.
· Prophylaxis measures in infectious disease. Direct and indirect prophylaxis: notification, quarantine measures, diagnostic ascertainment, health surveillance, epidemiologic survey, disinfection, disinfestation, sterilization.
· The immune response: anatomical and physical barriers. Innate and adaptive immune responses. Humoral and cellular immune response. The role of B and T lymphocytes and antibodies.
· History of Vaccines. Vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccine types: life-attenuated vaccines; inactivated vaccines; toxoid vaccines; subunit , recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines. Adjuvants. Administration modes, side effects and contraindications. National vaccine plan. Passive immunization and immune-prophylaxis.
· Epidemiology and prophylaxis of transmittable disease:
o airborne infectious diseases
o sexually-transmitted diseases
o chronic viral hepatitis
o diseases transmitted via oral-fecal route
o vector-borne infectious diseases
Prerequisites for admission
Good knowledge of general biology, human anatomy, general and organic chemistry.
Teaching methods
Frontal Instruction/Lectures
Teaching Resources
- AA.VV. Brock. Biologia dei microrganismi. Microbiologia generale, ambientale e industriale. Pearson Editore (2016)
- G Dehò, E Galli. Biologia dei microrganismi. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, third edition (2019)
- Cesare Meloni, Igiene per le lauree delle professioni sanitarie, Zanichelli (2009)
- Lecture notes and slides
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is written and consists of 3 open questions. Maximal score related to complexity of questions. Final score is the sum of scores obtained in the different sections of the exam. The time available to complete the test is 45 minutes.
The exams, whenever possible, will be held face to face. In case face to face mode is not possible because of the Covid-19 outbreak, the exam will be written and held using Exam.net and Safe Exam Browser.

The exam will evaluate
- The ability of the student to reach course objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to apply knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to use the correct terminology in the field of Microbiology and to discuss the different topics in a clear and rational way.
The exam consists of a written test (max duration 45 minutes), with 3 open-ended questions aimed at evaluating the understanding and personal synthesis of what was presented during lectures.
APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
BIO/19 - MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 0
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
HYGIENE
BIO/19 - MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 0
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 0
Lessons: 32 hours

Linea MZ

Responsible
Lesson period
year
More specific information on the delivery modes for the academic year 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months based on the evolution of the public health situation. Lessons will follow the canonical lessons timetable published on the website. Teaching material will be deposited in the ARIEL platform. Students willing to follow face to face lessons will have to reserve their place using the dedicated App
The exam is written and consists of multiple choice and open questions. Maximal score related to complexity of questions. Final score is the sum of scores obtained in the different sections of the exam
The exam, whenever possible, will be held face to face. In case face to face mode will not be possible because of the covid outbreak the exam will be written and held using the Microspft teams platform.

The exam will evaluate
- The ability of the student to reach course objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to apply knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to use the correct terminology in the field of Microbiology and to discuss the different topics in a clear and rational way
Course syllabus
Applied Microbiology Module
1) Overview of microbiology and its applications.
2) Overview of cell structure: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacteria and Archaea. Cytoplasmic membrane, structure and function. Bacterial transport systems.Cell wall of prokaryotes. Outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Capsules. Flagella and bacterial motility. Surface structure for adhesion: pili. The nucleoid. Structure and organization of bacterial chromosome. Cytoplasm. Ribosomes. Cell inclusions. Endospores.
3) Microbial growth and microbial growth control. Principles of microbial nutrition. Liquid and solid media, growth conditions. Methods for sterilization. Disinfectants and antiseptics.
4) Nutrition and metabolism. Overview of metabolism. Fermentation and substrate level phosphorylation. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Chemiolithotrophy. Photosynthesis: anoxygenic photosynthesis. Autotrophic CO2 fixation. Nitrogen metabolism. Nitrogen fixation.
5) Microbial genetics. Mutations and mutants. Horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Overview of regulation of gene expression.
6) Viruses. Overview of bacterial viruses. Lytic cycle and lysogeny.
7) Selected examples of microorganisms relevant in clinic and industry
8) Antibiotics. Structure and mechanisms of action. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Overview on resistance mechanisms.

Hygiene Module
1) Human-Microbe interactions. The human normal microbiota. Microbiota and microbiome.
2) Microbes and disease. Pathogenicity and virulence. Virulence factors.
3) Lines of defenses against bacterial infections: overview of the innate immune system.
4) Pathogens of gastrointestinal tract and respiratory apparatus: mechanism of virulence.
5) Prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Antibiotics and resistance mechanisms. Vaccines.
Prerequisites for admission
Mandatory Exams: Physiology and applied biology
Knowledge in organic chemistry and general biology is required
Teaching methods
Lessons and classroom exercises (please refer to the section teaching in covid-19 outbreak)
Teaching Resources
Galli-Dehò Biologia dei Microrganismi Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 3ed 2018
Scientific papers on e-learning platform
Slides on e-learning platform
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is written and consists of multiple choice and open questions. Maximal score related to complexity of questions. Final score is the sum of scores obtained in the different sections of the exam
The exam, whenever possible, will be held face to face. In case face to face mode will not be possible because of the covid outbreak the exam will be written and held using the Microspft teams platform.

The exam will evaluate
- The ability of the student to reach course objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to apply knowledge and understanding
- The ability of the student to use the correct terminology in the field of Microbiology and to discuss the different topics in a clear and rational way
APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
BIO/19 - MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 0
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
HYGIENE
BIO/19 - MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 0
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 0
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Polissi Alessandra
Professor(s)
Reception:
Upon request
INGM, via Francesco Sforza 35, or DiSFeB, via Balzaretti 9, Milano