Cereal products: traditional and innovative technologies

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the knowledge related to the characterization of cereals and their transformation into semi-finished and finished products using conventional and innovative technologies. The main objective of the course is to provide students with the knowledge on the modifications of the main macromolecules present in cereals during the technological process and their role in the physical, structural and sensory properties of the food.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the students will be able to define the commercial quality classes of cereals and flours. Students will be able to interpret technical specifications relating to the marketing of cereals and flours. At the end of the course the students will also be able to apply the appropriate technology in the different phases of a production process that uses cereals and flour to reach the highest quality level.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
RAW MATERIALS: CEREALS The international and national cereal sector: structure, market and the major issues. Morphological, physical and chemical properties of the kernel of major cereal crops. The pseudocereals in comparison with cereals. Quality indices of grains and their evaluation. Criteria of (technological, commercial, etc..) classification for wheat and other cereals in Italy and worldwide. The major macromolecules in the grains: chemical, physical and structural features. The phenomenon of germination: control and prevention.
PRODUCTION OF SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS The milling sector in Italy. Process description of wheat milling: differences in milling diagrams between common and durum wheat. The milling of other cereals (corn, etc..). Assessment of rheological properties of flours. Innovation of first processing processes (hulling, parboiling, etc..). By-products utilization and enhancement: recovery of interesting components for secondary processing. FINISHED-PRODUCTS PRODUCTION Pasta. Macroscopic and molecular phenomena related to pasta-making process. Technological innovations. The production of fresh pasta: main differences with the technological process for dried pasta. Cooking pasta: phenomena and their intensity, evaluation of cooked pasta quality. Production of enriched pasta.
Bread and other leavened products: Classification. Dough characteristics: the role of water, flour macromolecular components and other ingredients, improvers and enzymes; mode of/types of kneading. The proofing and the formation of a crumb structure. Cooking: stabilization of the structure. The phenomena related to bread aging (staling), their evaluation and slowing. Product (low glycemic index breads, fiber-enriched breads, etc.) and processing (continuous processes, with use of pre-ferment, frozen bread production, etc..) innovation.
Processing of gluten-free cereals (maize, rice, sorghum) and pseudocereals in products such as bread and pasta.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledge of food processing and biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Lectures. Seminars held by experts from industry and/or academia.
Lab classes and tours in companies.
Teaching Resources
The material presented during the lessons will be available on ARIEL.
Scientific papers suggested during the classes.
Searches on websites.
The teacher is available for further clarification by appointment.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam consists of two parts:
1) a research (as power point presentation) to further investigate a topic covered in class (to be agreed with the teacher). It is a group work (maximum 3 students per group) to be presented during the course.
2) the discussion of the main topics addressed during the course.

The evaluation will be based on knowledge, understanding, and critical thinking of the topics and on communication skills.

Preliminary registration to the exam session through the UNIMIA system is mandatory.

DSA students and students with disabilities are invited to inform the teacher by e-mail at least ten days before the exam date in order to define the possible individual actions. The e-mail should also send in cc to: serviziodsa@unimi.it (for DSA students) or ufficiodisabili@unimi.it (for students with disabilities).
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 6
Field activity: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Marti Alessandra