Enological and fermentations chemistry

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The student will be prepared for the use of basic chemical and specific concepts of enological chemistry through a general view of the compounds that evolve from the must to the wine, including the chemical phenomena involved in aging. The teaching is closely connected with the courses in which basic biochemistry and microbiology are developed to form a student who has a complete perspective on the fermentation phenomena that accompany winemaking. The student will learn the chemical constituents of grapes and their evolution during winemaking. To achieve this main objective, the student will develop detailed knowledge related to the structural aspects of the main molecules making up the wine (for example: mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, organic acids, phenolic derivatives, nitrogenous substances, inorganic substances).
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the main chemical and biochemical transformations will be an important objective of the course, with particular reference to the chemistry of fermentation. The student will become familiar with the main processes of chemical transformation related to wine aging processes.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
Lessons will be held in presence and students will be able to participate by registering through the booking application made available by UNIMI. For those who will not be able to attend, the lessons will be delivered in sync (streaming) through the Microsoft Teams platform.
Course syllabus
The student will learn about:
- the molecules that make up the grape and their evolution during the winemaking processes;
- the main molecules that determine the color of the wine and the chemical and biochemical transformations that determine their destiny in the winemaking processes;
- the fate of monosaccharides and the chemistry of yeast and lactic acid bacteria fermentations;
- the use of SO2: advantages, disadvantages, reactions with molecules normally present during winemaking
- the main molecules that determine the aroma of wine and the chemical and biochemical transformations that determine their destiny in the winemaking processes;
- defects in wine: chemical causes and prevention methods;
- nitrogen derivatives in the evolution of wine;
- polysaccharides: structural aspects and importance in the winemaking processes;
- chemical and biochemical processes that accompany the aging of wine.
Prerequisites for admission
The course starts from the basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry acquired during the first year in the courses of General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry
Teaching methods
The course is divided into lectures and classroom exercises to verify the understanding of the basic theoretical concepts
Teaching Resources
Trattato di Enologia II
P. Ribereau-Gayon, Y. Glories, A. Maujean e D. Dubourdieu
Edagricole (fourth edition, 2018)
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be held in written form with open questions
There are two intermediate tests during the course which will take place during the breaks of the teaching activity, as required by the Faculty calendar. If the student opts for the intermediate tests, the final evaluation will consist of the weighted average of the marks. In any case, it is necessary to achieve sufficiency in both tests. Verification of learning will also be assessed by tests during and at the end of the lessons. Students with SLD and disabilities are asked to contact the teacher via email at least 10 days before the scheduled exam date to agree on any individualized measures. In the email addressed to the teacher, it is necessary to CC the respective University Services: serviziodsa@unimi.it (for students with SLD) and ufficiodisabili@unimi.it (for students with disabilities)
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
by personal appointment
via Luigi Mangiagalli 25, DeFENS building, third floor