Head and neck

A.Y. 2021/2022
9
Max ECTS
108
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/16 MED/28 MED/29 MED/30 MED/31
Language
English
Learning objectives
This course provides the students with the main knowledge regarding the diseases and the disorders that the physician should know in the head and neck district. The course integrates different disciplines, including basic disciplines, i.e. Anatomy and Physiology, and the main clinical disciplines relative to this complex area, i.e. Dentistry, Ear-Nose and Throat (ENT), Ophthalmology and Maxillofacial Surgery.The course focuses on the basic and clinical aspects of the Head and Neck pathologies. The course is designed in different blocks. In the first block anatomy and physiology lectures are preparatory to the clinical science lectures. Anatomy address the regional organization of the human head and neck, with a topographic approach in relation to clinical practice. Physiology addresses the sensory innervation of the oral-facial region and the principal head and neck related motor functions.
The basic science block are followed by clinical blocks, each one presenting a main topic, i.e. a symptom related to head and neck district. Taking the symptom as starting point, lectures disclose the possible mechanisms originating the symptom, driving the student in the differential diagnosis through a multidisciplinary integrated analysis of the different organs and systems of head and neck. Dentistry lectures aims to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the common oral diseases, the relationship existing between oral and general health, and their prevention and treatment. Students are trained to recognise patients requiring interdisciplinary therapy in order to effectively interface with other specialties and disciplines in the care of patients. ENT lectures will focus on the different disorders in the ENT districts: clinical presentation and consequences of non-treatment and diagnostic means are discussed. Lectures highlight those diseases that overlap with the "neighboring" disciplines (e.g. odontogenic sinusitis) and discuss shared therapeutic options. Lectures of Ophthalmology provide a good background of knowledge about eye and vision related disorders, focusing on epidemiologically relevant diseases across different age groups. A final part focused on acute vision disorders and emergency completes the course. The lectures of maxillo-facial surgery focus, through the presentations of numerous clinical cases, on the epidemiologically most relevant craniofacial tumors and malformations, such as lip and palate clefts, craniofacial-stenosis and I and II arch syndromes. Special issue are held on reconstruction of post oncological and post traumatic facial defects. Lectures will also provide general knowledge on facial traumatology, focusing in particular on how to diagnose the most frequent fractures (nose, orbit, zygoma, maxilla and mandible) and how to practically handle simple or severe wounds involving facial soft tissues. Particular attention is given to facial paralysis: clinical description and facial surgical reanimation.
The final part of the course focuses on systemic respiratory and emorragic emergencies secondary to facial trauma will complete the course. Overall, the course encourages a multidisciplinary approach and try to integrate, whenever possible, all the features shared by the different specialties.
Expected learning outcomes
Students are expected to know:
- the anatomic-functional basis of head and neck related functions
- origin of pain in the head and neck area
The possible mechanisms originating the symptoms, differential diagnosis and clinical management of:
- nasal obstruction, epistaxis, oral mucosal diseases
- commonly prescribed medications and their significance for Oral Health
- movement Disorders: Facial Palsy, Dysphonia, Dysphagia, Dyspnoea, Ocular motion disorders
- loss of function: DEAFNESS, BLINDNESS
- neck and facial masses
- vertigo
- how pregnancy, growth and ageing affect the Head and Neck area
- distrectual expressions of systemic diseases and emergency
- facial and craniofacial disproportion
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
To take the Head and Neck exam, students must have already passed all the exams of the first and second year (Fundamentals of Basic Sciences, Cells, Molecules and Genes 1 and 2, Human Body, Functions and Mechanisms of Diseases).
Assessment methods and Criteria
Student assessment is based on a combination of written and oral examinations.
A written exam is a multiple-choice test focused on the topics of the Anatomy and Physiology modules. Only students who successfully pass the written test are allowed to take the oral examination, focused on the modules: ENT, Ophthalmology, Odontostomatology, Maxillo-facial surgery. The final mark is the weighted average of the marks obtained in the oral examination.
Odontostomatological diseases
Course syllabus
INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE
Lecture 0. (all teachers) Problems and symptoms in the Head and Neck patient
The first lecture will cover an introductory session about the "head and neck" topic: it will be shared by the different specialists and will introduce the common aspects of the four areas.
What do you ask the patient presenting with:
Pain in the head and neck area,
Nasal obstruction, epistaxis, oral mucosal diseases
Otorrhea, deafness, auricular fullness
Neck and facial masses
Movement Disorders: Facial Palsy, Dysphonia, Dysphagia, Dyspnoea, Ocular motion disorders
Vertigo
Gingival bleeding and oral lesions
Facial and craniofacial disproportions
Two cases with questions answered by a simulated patient

TOPIC I. Anatomic-functional basis of head and neck related functions
Lecture 1. ANATOMY: Headache related to disorders of the masticatory apparatus
Anamnesis and diagnostic process of headache
Learning goals: Clinical features: to recognize different types of secondary headache and to localize the correlated pain in the facial framework.
Anatomical features: to describe the boundaries of the temporal, nose, lips, chin and cheek regions.
Overlapping of symptoms between acoustic and masticatory apparatus
Learning goals: Clinical features: To identify acoustic symptoms associated with articular and muscular temporomandibular disorders and to differentiate them from manifestations of otitis media.
Anatomical features: To describe the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and the tympanic cavity.
Trigeminal neuralgia
Learning goals: Clinical features: to recognize the idiopathic form of trigeminal neuralgia and to differentiate it from those forms caused by disorders within the territories innervated by trigeminal nerve.
Anatomical features: to describe course and function of the trigeminal nerve fibers.
Occlusal-related pain
Learning goals: Clinical features: to identify the most frequent pathologies of dental and periodontal tissues having a pain irradiation in the temporal and pre-auricular areas and to understand the principles of dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders.
Anatomical features: To describe alveolar processes, teeth and dental occlusion.
Lecture 2. PHYSIOLOGY: Somatosensory system: trigeminal district
Oro-facial sensory innervations: sensory perception in mouth
Learning goals: To describe the receptive fields, the functional and adaptation properties of mechano-termal receptors in the oro-facial region, and the proprioceptive innervation of the oro-facial district; to describe the integrative system underlying taste and texture perception.
Oro-facial sensory innervations: pain perception in mouth
Learning goals: To describe the neural substrates of the oro-facial pain; central pathways of the trigeminal system: from touch to pain perception; to define the psycho-physical laws of sensory perception in oro-facial region; to describe the central pathways of the oro-facial sensory innervation.
Oro-facial sensory innervations: Teeth innervation
Learning goals: To describe the functional and adaptation properties of the dentinal, pulpal and periodontal receptors.
Oro-facial sensory innervations: autonomic sensory innervation of mouth
Learning goals: To describe the vegetative afferents from oro-facial region.
Oro-facial sensory innervations: reflexes
Learning goals: To describe the somatosensory and vegetative reflexes of the oro- facial region.
Lecture 3. ANATOMY: Nose and paranasal sinuses
Learning goals: to observe and recognize the position and main anatomical characteristics of the paranasal air sinuses and their spatial relationships with the nasal cavity, the orbit and the oral cavity including the alveolar processes; to describe the physiological and the clinical access to the maxillary sinus; to depict the main features of the nasal and paranasal mucosa with the correspondent vascular and nervous supply.
Lecture 4. ANATOMY: Peripheral Facial Palsy
Anamnesis and diagnostic process of facial palsy
Learning goals: Clinical features: to describe the most frequent signs and symptoms of peripheral facial palsy.
Anatomical features: to describe the territories supplied by facial nerve (lacrimal apparatus, tongue, mimic muscles and platysma, salivatory glands).
Etiology of facial palsy
Learning goals: Clinical features: identify different types of peripheral facial palsy (Bell's palsy, neoplastic infective and vascular forms) and to explain how to orient the diagnosis using instrumental evaluations.
Anatomical features: To describe the intracranial course of the facial nerve (facial canal) and the course of all nerve branches. To depict limits and content of the pterygopalatine and the infratemporal fossae and of the submandibular space.
Altered salivation and facial expressions
Learning goals: Clinical features: to learn the link between xerostomia and changes in the mimicry.
Anatomical features: To describe the extra cranial course of the facial nerve and its anastomosis with other cranial nerves (trigeminal and glossopharyngeal). To depict limits and content of the parotid space, and to learn the organization of para- and retropharyngeal spaces.
Lecture 5. PHYSIOLOGY: Neural control of Face expression
Neural control of facial expressions.
Learning goals: to describe functions of the mimic muscles. To describe the central control of mimic muscles: the emotional vs the voluntary facial expressions.
Lecture 6. ANATOMY: Oro-pharyngeal Dysphagia
Anamnesis and diagnostic process of Oro-pharyngeal Dysphagia
Learning goals: Clinical features: to describe the most important clinical and etiological features of this condition and to differentiate it from esophageal dysphagia.
Anatomical features: to describe the phases of swallowing.
Oral phase of swallowing
Learning goals: Clinical features: to understand the normal mechanism of bolus formation, lip closure and tongue position in the adult swallowing and to identify atypical deglutition.
Anatomical features: to describe all muscular, nervous and visceral structures involved in the oral phase of swallowing including the tongue and the soft palate.
Pharyngeal phase of swallowing
Learning goals: Clinical features: to understand the subdivision between air and bolus compartments in the pharynx.
Anatomical features: to describe the structure and architecture of the pharynx with nerves and vessels supply. To identify the Eustachian tube and to understand its role during swallowing. To learn the location and clinical significance of Waldeyer's lymphatic ring.
Lecture 7. PHYSIOLOGY: Neural control of Masticatory function
Neural control of mastication.
Learning goals: to describe the main reflexes acting on temporo mandibular joint fed by mechanoreceptors, nociceptors and proprioceptors; to define the resting posture of the jaw; to describe the phases of mastication and their pattern of muscular activation; to describe the neural control of mastication: integration by brain stem cranial nerve nuclei of reflex inputs and commands from other central nervous system nuclei; to define the different mechanisms controlling the voluntary bite vs chewing.
Lecture 8. ANATOMY: Voice disorders
Production of the voice
Learning goals Clinical features: to describe the different steps of phono-articulatory process and the clinical consequences of each step disturbance.
Anatomical features: To describe the structure and architecture of the larynx.
Voice reduction correlated with laryngeal muscles disturbance
Learning goals: Clinical features: to understand possible causes altering the vibration of vocal cords.
Anatomical features: To define the laryngeal vessels and nerves supply. To learn the course of vagus nerve in the neck fascial compartments, and to explain its functional importance. To depict the position of the trachea, thyroid cartilage, larynx, thyroid and parathyroid glands in relation to the supra-hyoid and infra-hyoid muscles. To describe the carotid arteries system, the internal jugular vein, the functions of the deep and superficial cervical veins within the anterior triangle of the neck.
Lecture 9. PHYSIOLOGY: Laryngeal functions
Neural control of laryngeal functions
Learning goals: to overview of the different laryngeal functions.
The phono-articulatory process
Learning goals: to describe neuromuscular control of voice/sounds emission: whispering, speaking, singing; to describe the control exerted by the acoustic inputs on the laryngeal function; to describe the control exerted by the somatosensory inputs on the laryngeal function; to describe the control exerted by the acoustic inputs on speech articulation.
Neural control of swallowing.
Learning goals: to describe the mechanisms of salivary production and its autonomic control.
Lecture 10. PHYSIOLOGY: The neurophysiological basis of vertigo, nausea and vomiting
Learning goals: to recall the mechanism controlling posture.
Vertigo
Learning goals: to describe the neural basis of vertigo vs dizziness and motion sickness
Nausea and vomiting
Learning goals: to describe the neural basis of nausea; to describe the neural structures involved in emesis

TOPIC II. Pain in the head and neck area
Lecture 11a. DENTISTRY: The patient with acute oral pain
Learning goals: To describe oral pain related to oral diseases and in particular to dental caries; dental caries: epidemiology, etiology, prevention and consequences of such a disease. Hard dental tissues scanning electron microscopy and dental hypersensitivity.
Lecture 11b. DENTISTRY: The most common diseases of the oral cavity
Learning goals: To define distribution in the population, risk factors and clinical presentations of periodontal diseases Periodontal apparatus in health and disease. The oral biofilm and the aetiology of gingivitis and periodontitis diseases. Diagnosis, classification and treatment of the different periodontal conditions
Lecture 11c. DENTISTRY: Oral-facial chronic pain
Learning goals: To describe chronic oral pain not related to tooth and gum diseases (i.e, persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, oral cancer related pain).
Lecture 12a. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The red eye
Prerequisites: Anatomy of the anterior segment of the eye. Anatomy of trigeminal innervation (face and eye). Physiology of aqueous humor dynamics. Differential diagnosis with structures causing pain in the periorbital region.
Learning goals: to learn the different inflammatory conditions of the eye, their differential diagnosis, management and treatment will be the aim of this lecture. Particular weight is given to differentiate the conditions that require emergency and prompt management from those that may need delayed examination by a specialist.
Clinical cases of anterior uveitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis and acute attack of glaucoma will be shown and discussed.
Lecture 12b. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The painful eye
Prerequisites: Anatomy of the anterior segment of the eye. Anatomy of trigeminal innervation (face and eye). Physiology of aqueous humor dynamics. Differential diagnosis with structures causing pain in the periorbital region.
Learning goals: Identification of causes of painful eye; definition of acute vs chronic pain; management and treatment using a multidisciplinary approach

TOPIC III. Nasal obstruction, epistaxis, oral mucosal diseases
Lecture 13a 13b. EAR NOSE THROAT 1.The patient with nasal obstruction and/or nasal discharge
Learning goals: To recognize the different features and symptoms related to nasal obstruction and discharge and to differentiate benign from malignant disease. To get an overview of therapeutic options and to appreciate the diagnostic tools for evaluation.
Lecture 13c. EAR NOSE THROAT The patient with headache - its relations with nasal disease
Learning goals: To recognize the different features and symptoms related to headache and to be able to ask the right questions for a preliminary differentiation between sino-nasal headache and other causes.
Practical session*
Examination of the nose
Fiberscope examination of the rhino-pharynx and of the adenoids
Lecture 14. ENT, OPHTHALMOLOGY: Complications of oro-sinusal disease. What do we share with the ophthalmologist and maxillofacial surgeon?
Learning goals: Being able to identify the features of complications of sino-nasal disease that overlap with the neighbouring structures and to recognize the primary source of the disorders. To identify the gravity of each shared complication and detect those cases that need immediate interdisciplinary attention.
Lecture 15a 15b 15c. DENTISTRY: The patient with oral mucosal diseases
Learning goals: Epidemiology of the diseases of the oral mucosa. Basic knowledge of the elementary mucosal lesions. The diagnostic process in oral medicine. How to examine the mouth of our patient; basic information regarding the prevalence of the oral mucosal diseases.
In particular, being able to recognize:
-oral ulcers: how to make a diagnosis.
-vesicular-bullous lesions of the oral cavity as lichen planus, pemphigoid, pemphigus, erythema multiform, and blistering viral lesions;
- pigmented oral lesions, candidiasis, and traumatic oral fibroma.

TOPIC IV. Movement Disorders: Facial Palsy, Dysphonia, Dysphagia, Dyspnoea, Ocular motion disorders
Lecture 16. DENTISTRY Hypo-salivation and hyper-salivation
Learning goals: Clinical features, causes, consequences and treatment.
Lecture 17. MAXILLO-FACIAL SURGERY: Oral nerve lesions are an emerging pathology, due to oral surgery increasing
Learning goals: to understand the pathophysiology of the lesions, the clinical features, and therapeutic options. Physiological neural repair modalities are explained as well as treatment options: microsurgery, medical therapy, acupuncture, hypnosis.
Lecture 18. ENT: The adult patient with dysphonia, dysphagia and/or dyspnea (2h)
Learning goals: to recognize the different ENT-diseases related to dysphonia, dysphagia and/or dyspnoea. To get to know the diagnostic tools for evaluation and basic therapeutic options. To differentiate between acute and life- endangering and more benign courses.
Practical session *
Examination of the mouth and oropharynx
Fiberscope examination of the pharynx
Examination of the larynx with indirect laryngoscopy
Fiberscope examination of the larynx
Lecture 19. OPHTHALMOLOGY: Abnormal eye movements: the more common causes of diplopia: eye, visual system and neurologic disorders
Prerequisites: Physiology of the ocular movements: 1) Gaze stabilization (vestibule-ocula and optokinetic reflexes); 2) Gaze shifting (smooth pursuit, saccades); 3) Vergence.
Learning goals: to understand the different mechanisms leading to disorders of the eye movements and diplopia. Differential diagnosis criteria and examples of clinical cases will be explained.

TOPIC V. FROM IMPAIRED FUNTION TO LOSS OF FUNCTION: DEAFNESS, BLINDNESS
Lecture 20. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The correct process of vision: the role of ocular media and their physiopathology.
Prerequisites: Anatomy of the eye. Physiology of the mechanism of vision. The lens and the mechanism of accommodation and convergence.
The role of ocular media and their physiopathology.
Learning goals: this lecture focuses on how the process of vision is carried out and what is needed in order to correctly visualize the images. Refraction, cornea disorders and cataracts and how they can affect the correct process of vision will be described providing theoretical and practical explanations with clinical cases.
Practical session (1 hour):
assessment of visual acuity
slit lamp examination
Lecture 21. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The blind eye: the more common conditions leading to complete blindness
Learning goals: Vascular disorders, e.g. retinal arterial and vein occlusions, diabetic retinopathy, ischemic optic neuropathy, cerebral ischemia involving the visual pathways and neuritis and tumors will be described. Criteria for differential diagnosis will be discussed together with clinical examples. In particular, the growing importance of the imaging of the eye and specifically of the retina and the optic nerve head will be shown and explained. These will be compared with the "traditional" examination of eye fundus.
Practical session:
Examination of the fundus oculi
Lecture 22. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The eye and the brain: the pathologies involving the visual pathways from the eye to the brain cortex
Learning goals: Cerebral ischemia involving the visual pathways, optic ischemic neuropathies, neuritis and tumors will be described. Particular attention will be dedicated to the examination of the optic nerve head and how to interpret visual field changes.
Lecture 23. ENT: The patient that does not hear
Learning goals: To understand the acute and chronic causes for hearing deficits and being able to detect causes that need immediate diagnostic and therapeutic attention
Practical session *
Examination of the ear (otoscopy)
Audiometry and impedenzometry

TOPIC VI. Neck and facial masses
Lecture 24. ENT, MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: The patient with facial/cervical masses
Learning goals: To identify the most common causes for swelling/masses in the region. To recognize the signs for suspicion of malignant disease. Achieve a deeper understanding of the diagnostical pathway through the use of a flow chart approach. To get an overview of therapeutic options.
Practical session *
Examination of the neck
Lecture 25. DENTISTRY: The patient with oral potentially malignant disorders and with oral cancer
Learning goals: Being able to recognize ppotentially malignant oral lesions and conditions. Suggested treatment and follow-up of a patient suffering from a leukoplakia or an erythroplakia.
Practical session **
Lecture 26. OPHTHALMOLOGY: Orbital pathology: a multidisciplinary approach
Learning goals: this lecture focuses on more common orbital pathologies that can affect the eye and visual system. Grave's disease, optic nerve tumors, pseudotumour, and orbital cellulitis will be the main topics. A multidisciplinary approach involving other specialists of the orbit (otorhinolaryngologist, maxillofacial surgeon, endocrinologist) is considered for both diagnostic and medical/surgical management.

TOPIC VII. Vertigo
Lecture 27. ENT: The patient with instability/vertigo
Learning goals: To be able to ask the right questions for a preliminary differentiation between peripheral vertigo, instability of the elderly and central vertigo
Practical session *
Bed side examination of vestibular function

TOPIC VIII. AGE LONG: Pregnancy, growing and ageing
Lecture 28. ENT: To recognize the difference in handling a paediatric patient: The child
Learning goals. To appreciate the most common causes for paediatric ENT consultations and get an overview of therapeutic options.
Open questions and discussion of clinical cases.
Lecture 29. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The visual system in the child
Learning goals: this lecture focuses on the main steps of the development of the visual system from the eye to the brain. Particular weight will be given to amblyopia, strabismus and to what a pediatrician needs to know about correct development of "the good sight". Differential criteria of leucocoria and tumors of the eye and affecting vision will be also covered.
Lecture 30a. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The aging eye: Age-related conditions involving the anterior segment of the eye
Lecture 30b. OPHTHALMOLOGY: The aging eye: Age-related conditions involving the posterior segment of the eye
Learning goals: this lecture focuses on the chronic disorders of the aging eye. Epidemiologically relevant conditions like glaucoma and macular degeneration are the most important potential causes of blindness in the developed countries. New treatment paradigms are proposed, yet their increasing costs are challenging our Health Care Systems: what the doctors need to know to improve a rationale management.
Lecture 31a, 31b. DENTISTRY: Oral health issues of interest for the physician
Learning goals: to present the most common mouth-related problems that a physician have to face: they include oral side effects of drugs, and anticancer treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy). To recognize the most common dental treatment and prosthesis rehabilitation and related problems (implant and peri- implantitis, prosthesis and denture stomatitis, restorative treatments and lichenoid lesions, )
Practical session

TOPIC IX. Distrectual expressions of systemic diseases and emergency
Lecture 32. OPHTHALMOLOGY: What is a real emergency?
Learning goals: the most common reasons of eye and vision conditions leading to emergency care will be discussed. Particular weight will be given to what the general practitioner must know and can do and when a specialist is required. Practical examples of the "real life" emergency room activities dealing with eye and vision disorders will be provided, and algorithms of correct management discussed.
Lecture 33. OPHTHALMOLOGY: Surgical approaches for ocular diseases
Learning goals: Most common types of surgeries for ocular pathologies will be shown and explained. This lesson will be based on videos taken from the operating room of San Paolo Hospital.
Lecture 34. MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: Facial and craniofacial Trauma
Learning goals: to describe the most relevant clinical features in facial traumatology, focusing in particular on how to diagnose the most frequent fractures (nose, orbit, zygoma, maxilla and mandible) and how to practically handle simple or severe wounds involving facial soft tissues
Lecture 35. DENTISTRY: Oral health is more than healthy teeth and gums
Learning goals: Oral health and general health: A relationship exists?
Lecture 36. MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: Facial Palsy
Learning goals: to understand the pathophysiology of the facial nerve lesions, the clinical features, and therapeutic options. Physiological neural repair modalities are explained as well as treatment options: microsurgery and medical therapy.

TOPIC X. The patient with facial and craniofacial disproportion
Lecture 37. MAXILLO-FACIAL SURGERY: Clinical Examination and anthropometry of the face: facial and craniofacial malformation
Learning goals: to describe rare craniofacial malformation, their impressive clinical behaviour, development during childhood and related problems are discussed. Specific surgical and non-surgical treatment are explained in details. To describe the most frequent maxilla-facial malformation, cleft lip and palate, is explained. The entire topic is analysed from a multidisciplinary point of view. Two- days at the Regional facial and craniofacial malformation Centre are offered to better understand the whole treatment goals.
To understand the pathology and complexity of its multidisciplinary treatment.
Practical session*
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Ophthalmology
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Otorhinolaryngological diseases.
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Otorhinolaryngology
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Otorhinolaryngological diseases.
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Human physiology
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Otorhinolaryngological diseases.
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Anatomy
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Otorhinolaryngological diseases.
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Maxillofacial surgery
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Otorhinolaryngological diseases.
Teaching methods
Lectures, Clinical cases, Case studies and Laboratory skills
Teaching Resources
Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology, 8th Ed 2016 (Elsevier)
Probst, Grevers, Iro. Basic Otorhinolaryngology: a Step by Step Learning Guide (Thieme 2006)
Peter Lockart Oral Medicine and Medically Complex Patients, 6th Ed, Wiley and Blackwell, 2013
Essentials of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - K Kahnberg, L Andersson, M Pogrel. Wiley-Blackwell 2014.
Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 12 hours
Human physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 12 hours
Professor: Cerri Gabriella
Maxillofacial surgery
MED/29 - MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 12 hours
Professor: Allevi Fabiana
Odontostomatological diseases
MED/28 - ORAL DISEASES AND DENTISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours
Ophthalmology
MED/30 - OPHTHALMOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours
Otorhinolaryngology
MED/31 - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours