Human pathology (3rd year)

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the knowledge:
i) of the principal diagnostic and instrumental tools of modern pathology to adequately recognize the right clinical context and the right diagnostic procedure in patient management;
ii) of the organization, structure and function of normal cells and tissues and the pathologic principles of cellular/tissue/organ injury, related to the most relevant diseases;
iii) of the specific role of the pathologist in guiding the clinical decisional process in diagnosis, prevention, prognosis and therapy of the single disease;
iv) the ability to correctly interpret a pathology report.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to:
i) choose the right clinical context to ask for a correct pathologic diagnostic procedure during diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of the patient;
ii) use the correct diagnostic pathological algorithm considering their cost-effectiveness ratio;
iii) choose and send the correct surgical specimen to the Pathology Unit;
iv) correctly interpret a pathology report.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
3rd year program:
Introductive part: the role of the surgical pathologist, from autopsy to molecular pathology.
1. Professional tasks, responsibility and fields in surgical pathologist working activity.
2. Clinical post mortem examination in adults, children and fetuses: features and aims compared to medico-legal autopsy.
3. Principal articles of the Mortuary Code, particularly those concerning clinical post mortem examination request.
4. "Cot death" regulations and "Legge Gelli" articles about post mortem examination techniques.
5. Histological examination: principal features and aims; different kinds of surgical specimens (incisional or excisional biopsy); how collect, preserve and send the histological sample to the surgical pathology lab; how to understand the pathological report.
6. Cytology (screening, second level, follow-up): principal features and aims; how to choose and send the best sample; how to understand the pathological report.
7. Immunohistochemistry: technical principles and indications.
8. Cytogenetic (classical and molecular) and Molecular Pathology: technical principles and indications.
9. Electron microscopy: technical principles and indications.
10. Intraoperative Histological Examination: methods, indications and limits.

Systematic part:
Respiratory Tract:
1. Bullous lung disease
2. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- Chronic bronchitis, asthma and emphysema
4. Nontuberculous lung infections.
5. Tuberculosis (pulmonary and systemic).
6. Pulmonary embolism and infarction.
7. Lung cancer.
8. Pleural pathology (neoplastic and not neoplastic).
9. Neoplastic and not neoplastic mediastinal pathology
10. Surgical pathology techniques in pleuro-pulmonary and mediastinal pathology diagnostic evaluation.
Cardiovascular system
1. Primary (essential) and secondary hypertension (pathology aspects).
2. Heart failure (pathology aspects).
3. Chronic and persistent pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle disease (pathology aspects).
4. Ischemic heart disease.
5. Acquired valvular heart disease.
6. Myocarditis.
7. Pericarditis.
8. Congenital heart defect
9. Congenital arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.
10. Cardiomiopathies.
11. Heart tumors.
12. Aneurism, angiomas and vascular malformations
13. Thromboflebitis and varix
14. Lower limb ulcers and gangrene
1. Primary and secondary glomerular disease.
2. Tubulointerstitial diseases
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have acquired knowledge of Normal Anatomy and Histology, Human Embriology, Human Physiology, General Pathology and Genetics, to deal with the topics of the course of Pathology.
Teaching methods
The course consists of lectures (2 CFU in the 3rd and 4th years, 5 CFU in 5th), and 6 CFU in the 5th year (lectures: 5 CFU, practical activities: 1 CFU).
Practical activities comprise work in small groups with a following "step by step" debate with the Pathology Professor; clinical cases with necessary histopathological exams (cytological, bioptic and surgical speciments, or autopsies) will be discussed with special focus on the correct use of the algorithm of available pathological procedures and on correct differential diagnosis of patient's disease based on the results obtained; furthermore, the correct comprehention of information in the pathological report will be discussed, too.
Teaching Resources
Strayer D.S., Rubin Emanuel. "Patologia Generale. Anatomia Patologica". Piccin Nuova Libreria, 2019
Kumar V, Abbas A.K., J.C. Aster. "Robbins & Cotran. Anatomia Patologica". EDRA, 2017
PubMed: OMIM:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examination consists of an oral test at the end of the fifth years of the course.
No intermediate tests are planned.
The topics defined as essential in the course program are considered essential for passing the exam.
The student will be asked to:
a) clearly and exhaustively describe the pathological characteristics of the different human diseases.
b) To choose the appropriate clinical context to ask for an histopathological examination during patient's care, therapy and follow up
c) properly use the algorythm of the different available pathological procedures, considering their cost-effectiveness ratio
d) correctly make and send a patient's sample to the pathologist
e) correctly interpret a pathology report
A final score, out of thirty, will be attributed if the exam is passed.
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours