Human pathology (4th year)

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the knowledge:
i) of the principal diagnostic and instrumental tools of modern pathology to adequately recognize the right clinical context and the right diagnostic procedure in patient management;
ii) of the organization, structure and function of normal cells and tissues and the pathologic principles of cellular/tissue/organ injury, related to the most relevant diseases;
iii) of the specific role of the pathologist in guiding the clinical decisional process in diagnosis, prevention, prognosis and therapy of the single disease;
iv) the ability to correctly interpret a pathology report.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to:
i) choose the right clinical context to ask for a correct pathologic diagnostic procedure during diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of the patient;
ii) use the correct diagnostic pathological algorithm considering their cost-effectiveness ratio;
iii) choose and send the correct surgical specimen to the Pathology Unit;
iv) correctly interpret a pathology report.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
4th year program:
Gastrointestinal system:
1. Esophagitis and Barrett Esophagus.
2. Esophageal cancer.
3. Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease and their complications.
4. Helicobacter pylori infection: pathological aspects and complications.
5. Gastric cancer
6. Acute and chronic hepatitis
7. Hepatic cirrhosis.
8. Hepatocellular carcinoma.
9. Gallbladder: non-neoplastic (including cholelithiasis) and neoplastic pathologies and their complications.
10. Celiac disease.
11. Inflammatory bowel disease.
12. Intestinal ischemia.
13. Mechanical ileum (including meconium ileum) and dynamic ileum.
14. Intestinal diverticular disease.
15. Colon and rectal neoplasms.
16. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.
17. Neoplasms of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas.
Endocrine system
1. Pituitary adenomas.
2. Diabetes mellitus and its acute and chronic complications.
3. Non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid nodularity.
4. Parathyroid glands: hyperplasia, adenoma, carcinoma.
5. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia and benign and malignant primitive neoplasms of the cortex and adrenal medulla.
6. Adrenal metastases.
7. Diseases of the diffuse endocrine system
8. Multiple endocrine neoplasms.
9. Gonadal abnormalities in alterations of sexual differentiation.
Immune system and rheumatology
1. Systemic autoimmune diseases: SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, dermato-polymyositis.
2. Vasculitis: temporal arteritis and rheumatic polymyalgia, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Schönlein-Henoch vasculitis.
3. Infectious and post-infectious arthritis.
4. Primary chronic rheumatism.
5. Arthrosis of the column and peripheral joints.
Blood and hematopoietic organs
1. Aplasia and bone marrow hypoplasia.
2. Chronic myeloproliferative syndromes.
3. Myelodysplastic syndromes.
4. Acute leukemias.
5. Chronic lymphatic leukemia.
6. Hodgkin lymphoma.
7. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
8. Congenital and acquired coagulopathies; disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have acquired knowledge of Normal Anatomy and Histology, Human Embriology, Human Physiology, General Pathology and Genetics, to deal with the topics of the course of Pathology.
Teaching methods
The course consists of lectures (2 CFU in the 3rd and 4th years, 5 CFU in 5th), and 6 CFU in the 5th year (lectures: 5 CFU, practical activities: 1 CFU).
Practical activities comprise work in small groups with a following "step by step" debate with the Pathology Professor; clinical cases with necessary histopathological exams (cytological, bioptic and surgical speciments, or autopsies) will be discussed with special focus on the correct use of the algorithm of available pathological procedures and on correct differential diagnosis of patient's disease based on the results obtained; furthermore, the correct comprehention of information in the pathological report will be discussed, too.
Teaching Resources
Strayer D.S., Rubin Emanuel. "Patologia Generale. Anatomia Patologica". Piccin Nuova Libreria, 2019
Kumar V, Abbas A.K., J.C. Aster. "Robbins & Cotran. Anatomia Patologica". EDRA, 2017
PubMed: OMIM:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examination consists of an oral test at the end of the fifth years of the course.
No intermediate tests are planned.
Underlined topics of the Course Syllabus are essential to pass the exam.
The student will be asked to:
a) clearly and exhaustively describe the pathological characteristics of the different human diseases.
b) To choose the appropriate clinical context to ask for an histopathological examination during patient's care, therapy and follow up
c) properly use the algorythm of the different available pathological procedures, considering their cost-effectiveness ratio
d) correctly make and send a patient's sample to the pathologist
e) correctly interpret a pathology report
A final score, out of thirty, will be attributed if the exam is passed.
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours