Mechanisms of diseases

A.Y. 2021/2022
24
Max ECTS
296
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 MED/03 MED/04 MED/07
Language
English
Learning objectives
The course focuses on the causes of cell, tissue, and organ injury (general pathology), on the major groups of microbial pathogens that cause human diseases (microbiology), on the principal mechanisms of responses to injury and defense (inflammation and immunity), and on the general processes of the most relevant causes of human diseases (genetics, vascular pathology, oncology).
Integrating contributions from different disciplines, the course offers a comprehensive description of the main different mechanisms of disease organized in 11 modules:
A. Cellular pathology
B. Medical genetics
C. Basic concepts on pathogens
D. Virology
E. Microbiology
F. Inflammation and innate immunity
G. Adaptive immunity
H. Immunopathology
I. Oncology
J. Vascular pathology
K. Biotechnology approaches in translational medicine
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will gain understanding of:
· general pathological mechanisms leading to cell injury and death
· how the body reacts to physical and biological agents to recover homeostasis
· molecular and cellular basis for inflammatory disease states
· normal and abnormal functions of the innate and adaptive immune system
· genetic bases of human diseases
· main microbial pathogens and body's immune reactions to infections
· molecular basis of neoplastic diseases
· molecular basis of vascular alterations
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
To take the MOD exam, students must have already taken all the exams of the first year (FBS, CMG1, CMG2, HB).
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be based on two written parts and three oral parts:
· The WRITTEN TEST 1 will be based on 30 multiple choice questions of general pathology, immunology and microbiology;
· The WRITTEN TEST 2 is composed of 32 multiple choice questions of medical genetics (16 questions), biochemistry (8 questions) and methodology (8 questions). For each module at least half of the questions must be correct in order to pass the test. Each exact answer will value one point and the test will result in a mark from 18 to 30L
· The ORAL EXAMINATION 1 will evaluate general pathology and will result in a mark from 18 to 30L.
· The ORAL EXAMINATION 2 will evaluate immunology and will result in a mark from 18 to 30L.
· The ORAL EXAMINATION 3 will evaluate microbiology and will result in a mark from 18 to 30L.

The written test 1 has a threshold of 23/30 and will not contribute to the final mark. The written test 2 and all oral examinations tests will contribute to the final mark according to the following algorithm based on the proportion of the CFUs dedicated to each subject:
Written test 2 (medical genetics/biochemistry/methodology; 4 CFU): mark x/30 x 0.15 Oral examination 1 (general pathology; 7 CFU): mark x/30 x 0.3
Oral examination 2 (immunology; 7 CFU): mark x/30 x 0.3 Oral examination 3 (microbiology; 6 CFU): mark x/30 x 0.25
The final score of Pathology/Immunology will be implemented with the score obtained in the journal club session (from 0 to 2 points).

Written tests can be taken independently from each other.
The written exams and the oral examinations can be sustained in different dates. The oral examination sessions 1&2 have to be taken in a single session, the oral examination session 3 can be taken independently from 1&2.
Marks obtained in the different sessions will be considered valid indefinitely.

Registration through SIFA is mandatory.
Biochemistry
Course syllabus
MECHANISMS OF DISEASES - 1ST SEMESTER

Legend: A = asynchronous learning

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

BLOCK 1: CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
1. Introduction to MOD and its organization
2. Mechanisms of cellular adaptation, injury and death
3. Oxidative stress in human health and diseases
4. Intra- and extracellular accumulations leading to human diseases
5. The stem cell
6. Cellular senescence and aging (A)
7. Hydrophilic vitamins in health and disease I
8. Hydrophobic vitamins in health and disease II

BLOCK 2: MEDICAL GENETICS
1. Principles of molecular diseases
2. Genetic pleyotrophy
3. Genetic heterogeneity (A)
4. The position effect
5. When genotype is not predictive of phenotype
6. The genetics of complex diseases
7. From Mendelian to complex diseases
8. Epigenetics and human diseases I
9. Epigenetics and human diseases II (A)
10. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics

BLOCK 3: BASIC CONCEPTS ON PATHOGENS
1. The good and bad of microorganisms
2. Prokaryotic cell structure and function (A)
3. Microbial pathogenesis
4. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance
5. Fungal structure, function, and pathogenesis
6. Basic concepts of parasitology (A)
7. Parasites of medical relevance (A)
8. Viruses: structure, genetics and evolution
9. Viruses: classification and replication properties
10. Viruses: pathogenesis of viral infections

BLOCK 4: VIROLOGY
1. RNA positive viruses I: picornaviridae
2. RNA positive viruses II: flaviviridae
3. RNA positive and negative viruses
4. RNA negative viruses I
5. RNA negative viruses II
6. Viral hepatitis I: Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis D virus
7. Viral hepatitis II: Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis E virus, Hepatitis G virus
8. DNA viruses: herpesviridae
9. DNA viruses: parvoviridae, adenoviridae, papillomaviridae
10. DNA viruses: polyomaviridae (A)
11. Retroviridae: Human immunodeficiency virus
12. Retroviridae: Human immunodeficiency virus
13. Delta retroviruses, Human endogenous retroviruses, prions (A)

BLOCK 5: MICROBIOLOGY
1. Toxigenic bacteria
2. Pyogenic bacteria
3. Spore-forming bacteria
4. Intracellular bacteria (A)
5. Granulomatous infections
6. Granulomatous infections-Part II Clinical cases
7. Bacteria infecting the gut
8. Bacteria living in the gut - Focus on microbiome
9. Microorganisms infecting the central nervous system
10. Neisseria meningitidis (A)
11. Nosocomial pathogens (A)
12. Sepsis ad Septic shock
13. Invasive fungal infections
14. Biologicals and infection risk (A)

BLOCK 6: INFLAMMATION AND INNATE IMMUNITY
1. Origin of innate immune cells: hematopoiesis (A)
2. The acute inflammatory response
3. Cell mediators of acute inflammation
4. Soluble mediators of acute inflammation
5. Leukocyte recruitment (A)
6. Pathogen recognition in innate immunity I
7. Pathogen recognition in innate immunity II (A)
8. The complement system
9. Pathogen killing
10. Immunometabolism (A)
11. Resolution of the inflammatory response
12. Tissue repair and fibrosis
13. Chronic inflammation
14. Acute phase reaction and systemic inflammation

BLOCK 7: ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
1. From innate to adaptive immunity: basic concepts
2. Antigen processing and presentation
3. Antigen presenting cells
4. T cells development
5. Tolerance (A)
6. T cells functions
7. B cells development
8. Antibodies
9. Immune response polarization
10. Immune circuits in chronic inflammation
11. Negative regulators of the immune response (A)
12. Immunometabolism in adaptive immunity ( A)
13. Immune response memory (A)



MECHANISMS OF DISEASES - 2ND SEMESTER

BLOCK 8: IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
1. Immune responses to viruses
2. Immune responses to intracellular bacteria
3. Immune responses to extracellular bacteria and fungi
4. The immune system at the epithelial barriers (A)
5. The interaction between microbiome and the immune system (A)
6. Hypersensitivity reactions - part I
7. Hypersensitivity reactions - part II
8. Autoimmunity
9. Primary immunodeficiencies A
10. Acquired immunodeficiencies
11. Transplantation immunology
12. Systemic metabolism and immune response in complex diseases (A)
13. Immunosenescence

BLOCK 9: ONCOLOGY
1. Introduction to tumors
2. Distinctive features of benign, precancerous and malignant growth
3. Metabolic derangements in cancer cells
4. The genetic basis of cancer (A)
5. Sporadic and familial cancer (A)
6. Molecular basis of cancer
7. Carcinogenesis: physical and chemical agents (A)
8. Health impacts of air pollution (A)
9. Carcinogenesis: infectious agents (A)
10. Immune responses to tumors
11. CAR T cells in cancer immunotherapy (A)
12. Inflammation and cancer
13. Metabolic changes in patients with tumors (A)
14. Angiogenesis
15. Tumor angiogenesis

BLOCK 10: VASCULAR PATHOLOGY
1. Hemostasis and coagulation
2. Atherosclerosis (A)
3. Thrombotic disease (A)
4. Shock
5. Anemias (A)

BLOCK 11: BIOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHES IN TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
1. From somatic cells to stem cells
2. New technologies for the diagnosis and the therapies of immunologic diseases
3. From genetics to immunology: the auto-inflammatory diseases case
4. Regulation and ethics of modern technology in modern medicine
5. Flow cytometry applications in immunopathology


EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

BLOCK 1
Adaptation of cellular growth and differentiation
Mechanisms of cellular injury and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, necroptosis)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS): types, source, effects
Balance between ROS and antioxidants in human health and unbalance in human disease
Intracellular accumulations of endogenous and exogenous substances
Molecular and cellular aspects of protein misfolding and mechanisms of protein-folding diseases
The stem cell and the concept of pluripotency
Main properties of embryonic and adult stem cells
The hematopoietic stem cell as a paradigm of adult stem cells
Reprogrammed cells and induced pluripotency
Somatic cell reprogramming by nuclear transfer ("therapeutic cloning")
Hallmarks of aging
Genetic and biochemical changes in aging
Cellular senescence
Stem cell exhaustion
Altered intercellular communication
Sources, biochemical functions, and health benefits of energy-releasing and energy-converting vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7), and deficiency-related diseases
Sources, biochemical functions, and health benefits of hematopoietic vitamins (B9, B12), vitamin C, and deficiency-related diseases
Lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), and deficiency/excess-related diseases

BLOCK 2
Effect of mutations on protein function
Mechanism linking mutations to disease
Same gene, different phenotypes; different genes, same phenotype
Mutation not affecting coding gene sequences
Molecular basis of reduced penetrance in human inherited diseases
Identification of genetic risk factors in complex diseases
Common versus rare variant hypothesis in neurodegenerative disorders
Lessons from studying monogenic disease for common disease: the genetics of Alzheimer disease and mellitus diabetes
Epigenetic mechanisms
Epigenetic modifications and environment
Role of epigenetics in human diseases
Mechanisms of action of miRNA and lncRNA
Role of miRNA and lncRNA in human diseases
Genetic variation and drug response
Genetic variation and personalized medicine

BLOCK 3
Microbiota in health and disease
Basics of bacterial cell structure
Properties of bacterial cell walls (Gram staining, structure of peptidoglycan, LPS structure and role in human pathogenesis, target sites for antibiotics)
The genetic makeup of bacteria
Mechanisms of bacterial virulence: secretory, membrane-associated, and cytosolic factors. Structure, regulation, expression and their contribution to pathogenesis and immune evasion.
The eukaryotic nature of fungi and their classification
The fungal relationships with humans: basic pathogenic mechanisms for opportunistic and invasive infections.
Structure, morphology, genome organization and virulence factors of parasites
Pathogenesis of Giardia, Trichomonas, Plasmodii, and intestinal nematodes
Structure, morphology, genome organization and evolution theories of viruses
Classification of the viruses infecting humans Replication's strategies
Mechanisms of viral pathogenesis Determinants of communicable diseases

BLOCK 4
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of clinical relevant human picornaviruses.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of clinical relevant human flaviviruses.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the human viruses belonging to the viral families: togaviridae, coronaviridae, rhabdoviridae
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the viruses belonging to the viral families: orthomixoviridae, paramixoviridae, and pneumoviridae.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the viruses belonging to the viral families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae.
Structures, genome organization, replication and pathogenesis of the major viruses causing hepatitis.
Structures, genome organization, replication and pathogenesis of the major viruses causing hepatitis (II).
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the human herpesviruses.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the viruses belonging to the viral families: parvoviridae, adenoviridae, papillomaviridae.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the human polyomaviruses.
Structures, genome organization, and replication properties of HIV.
Pathogenesis of HIV.
Structures, genome organization, replication properties and pathogenesis of the human delta retroviruses (HTLV-I and II). Structures and pathogenesis of the prions.


BLOCK 5
Classification, pathogenetic mechanisms and diagnostic aspects of most clinically relevant bacteria.
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydiae, Neisseriae.
Haemophilus influenzae.
Bordetella pertussis.
Campylobacter, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter.
Clostridia and bacilli
Mycobacteria
Fungi (Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, dermatophytes, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis).
The burden of nosocomial infections
Anti-microbial resistance
Superbugs (MRSA, VRE, KPC)

BLOCK 6
The hematopoietic niche and hematopoietic stem cells
Hematopoietic lineages and cytokines
The normal and altered blood counts
Biological and physical barriers of innate immunity
Cardinal signs of acute inflammation
Blood flow alterations and vascular permeability
The endothelium as a reactive biological structure
Mast cells, phagocytes and NK cells
Molecular mediators active on vessels
Molecular mediators active on leukocytes
Primary inflammatory cytokines
Eicosanoids
Cell adhesion: adhesion molecules and cell migration, the chemokine system
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) and their receptors
The TLR system
Intracellular PRR
Opsonic receptors
Genetic defects in pathogen recognition
Complement system: Activation pathways, functions, regulatory mechanisms, genetic defects in the complement system
Mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity: phagocytosis and degranulation
Oxygen-dependent mechanisms, oxygen independent mechanisms, opsonic agents
Genetic defects in pathogen killing mechanisms
Energy for immunity
Metabolic signatures and profiles of key immune cells
Metabolic control of immune responses
Neutrophils metabolism and bioenergetics of anti-microbial action
Metabolism of macrophages
Metabolic shifts in macrophage activation and polarization
Negative regulators of the inflammatory response
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids
Stem cells and growth factors in tissue renewal
Multistep process of tissue repair, fibrosis, anomalies in wound healing
Distinct types of chronic inflammation
Cellular and molecular effectors of chronic inflammation
Macrophage polarization in chronic inflammatory responses
Systemic inflammation: Fever, leukocytosis, acute phase proteins

BLOCK 7
Key features of acquired immunity: specificity, memory, tolerance
The lymphoid system
Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, lymphatic vessels
The antigen: source, structure, processing
Thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens
Structure and function of Major Histocompatibility Complex I and II
MHC-I and MHC-II loci organization
Superantigens
Professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells
Dendritic cells origin and subsets
Dendritic cells maturation and migration
Costimulatory molecules
Intrathymic development
Positive and negative selection of T lymphocytes
TCR structure and repertoire generation
Central and peripheral tolerance
The TCR/CD3 signalling complex and transduction pathways
Helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes
BCR signalling and B cell activation
Antibody classes: structure and functions Isotype switch
Antibody classes in primary and secondary immune responses
Affinity maturation
T helper subsets and polarized immune responses
Differentiation and signalling in T helper cells
Immune response polarization in pathology
T cell / macrophage crosstalk in chronic inflammatory responses
Impact on effector cells
Immune granulomata: an immune perspective
Regulatory T cells
Myeloid regulatory cells
Metabolic differences between innate and adaptive immunity
Metabolism of specific T cell lineages
T cell metabolism changes during immune response
Vaccines and their development

BLOCK 8
Recognition of viral infection by the immune system
Effector mechanisms against viral infections
Viral strategies for evading antiviral immune responses
Recognition of intracellular infection by the immune system
Microbial strategies for evading immune responses
The mucosal immune system
Mucosal immunity and commensal microorganisms
Mucosal immunity to pathogenic microbes
General issues on hypersensitivity reactions
Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
Type IV hypersensitivity
The multifactorial pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
Failure mechanisms of the central and peripheral tolerance
Effector mechanisms of autoimmune reactions
Immune mechanisms of the most common autoimmune diseases
Differential features of autoimmune vs autoinflammatory diseases
Immune deficiency caused by defects in innate immunity
Immune deficiency caused by defects in B and T maturation
Iatrogenic immunodeficiencies
HIV infection and immune response
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pathogenesis
Animal models to assess HIV-1 infection and AIDS pathogenesis
Immunological basis of allograft rejection
Major and minor histocompatibility antigens
Molecular basis of direct and indirect allorecognition
Mechanisms of hyperacute, acute and chronic rejection graft-versus-host disease
Age-related changes in the innate immune system
Age-related changes in the adaptive immune system
Impact of immunosenescence on diseases and vaccination
Tissue immunometabolism: relationships in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and adipose tissue
Relationships between systemic metabolism and immunity
Vitamins in the control of immunity
Obesity as a multifactorial disease
Immunological implications of obesity

BLOCK 9
Definition of cancer and epidemiology
Tumor nomenclature, TNM classification
Differentiation and cell grading, rate of growth
Local invasion
Metastasis, pathways of spread
Oncogenic signaling and tumor microenvironment as drivers of cancer metabolism
Tumor sensing and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation
Signals and targets of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells
Advantages and liabilities of tumor cell metabolism
Genes in which mutations cause cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes (gatekeepers and caretakers genes)
Type of genetic alterations responsible for initiating cancer
Activating or gain of function mutations
Ectopic or heterochronic mutations
Chromosome translocations
Loss of function mutations
Genomic instability and tumor progression
Activated oncogenes in hereditary cancer syndrome: MEN2
Gatekeeper tumor suppressor genes in AD cancer syndromes
The two-hit origin of cancer: the hereditary and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma
The Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Caretaker gene in autosomal dominant cancer syndromes
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in familial breast cancer
Familial colon cancer
Counselling and germline mutation testing
The hallmarks of cancer
The cancer-associated genes involved in the hallmarks of cancer
Genomic instability and multistep carcinogenesis
Cancer stem cells
UV and ionizing radiations
Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion and progression
Metabolic activation of chemical compounds in vivo
Factors that control chemical carcinogenesis
Genotoxic and non-genotoxic effects of carcinogens
Oncogenic DNA and RNA viruses
Genetic mechanisms underlying the oncogenic process
Host interaction with oncogenic viruses
Pathogenic role of viruses into the oncogenic process
Role of bacteria into the oncogenic process: the H. pylori case
The immunosurveillance hypothesis
Determinants of tumor antigenicity
Defensive mechanisms against tumors
Mechanisms of cancer immune evasion
Cancer immunoediting
Principles of cancer immunotherapy
Epidemiologic evidence
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells
Tumor-associated macrophages and neutrophils
Mechanisms of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis
Endothelial progenitors and other pro-angiogenetic bone marrow-derived cells
Angiogenetic cytokines and their receptors
Common and distinctive features of blood and lymphatic vessels
Role of angiogenesis to tumor survival and growth
The role of the tumor microenvironment
Cancer-related anorexia and cachexia
Metabolic mechanisms of neoplastic cachexia
Molecular mediators of neoplastic cachexia
Tumor factors contributing to cancer cachexia
Clinical characteristics of neoplastic cachexia
Paraneoplastic syndromes

BLOCK 10
Platelets
Primary and secondary hemostasis and coagulation cascade
Fibrinolytic system
Mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque generation: risk factors, clinical manifestations and complications
Thrombus formation and evolution
Thromboembolism and immunothrombosis
Pathogenesis and stages of shock
Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
Biology of the red blood cell and classification of anemias

BLOCK 11
iPCs-technology as a tool to investigate pathogenesis and therapy of human diseases
Modern translational approaches in immunologic disorders
Bio-informatics approaches in the diagnosis of a new primary immune deficiencies
Regulatory agencies and policies of physicians facing new challenges and technologies
Flow cytometry in diagnosis and therapy of hematologic malignancies
Bone marrow reconstitution
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: classroom lectures, lessons by distance learning on Teams, PBL on Teams, journal clubs
Asynchronous learning: The teaching staff will provide audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms), text-based (e-mail, electronic documents) and e-learning material. Students will then have chance to discuss the topic with the teaching staff during scheduled forum sessions.

· PBL (problem-based learning) sessions. 4 PBLs will be developed by Prof. Locati and Marchesi, 6 hours each PBL, scheduled, according to the development of the pandemic, during the first or second semester
· Journal club session. Organized at the end of BLOCK 6 and BLOCK 10 (Prof Marchesi; 16 hours each).
Students will acquire confidence with different sources of scientific information and develop a critical approach based on a constant confrontation with peers and tutors. Each group composed of 3-4 IMS students will discuss an article selected by the teacher, and the groups will dissect the various aspects of the paper, focusing on the pathology, therapeutic options, experimental approach adopted and limitations of the study. Each working group will independently organize its individual and collegial activities and will have regular meetings with a dedicated tutor of the IMS faculty to define the key points to be discussed and identify appropriate information sources. At the end of the activity, each group will deliver a seminar to the whole class, presenting results in a one-day journal club session. Tutors will attend the presentations and guide the following collegial discussion.

ATTENDANCE:
Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam. Unexcused absence is tolerated up to 34% of the course activities. University policy regarding excused illness is followed. During the aa 2020-21, higher tolerance for absence is contemplated, considering the development of the pandemic and the related current difficult conditions for students.
In the PBL sessions, the attendance is considered only if the student attends the whole activity (6 hours). If the student attends the PBL session only partially, the related attendance is not considered.
In the journal club session, attendance is required both during the collegial activities (8 hours) and during the one-day journal club session (8 hours).
Teaching Resources
AK Abbas, AH Lichtman, S Pillai. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY. 9th ed. Elsevier 2017
SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
On specific topics of the program, not discussed during synchronous lessons, additional material will be made available during the course.
Genetics
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: classroom lectures, lessons by distance learning on Teams, PBL on Teams, journal clubs
Asynchronous learning: The teaching staff will provide audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms), text-based (e-mail, electronic documents) and e-learning material. Students will then have chance to discuss the topic with the teaching staff during scheduled forum sessions.

· PBL (problem-based learning) sessions. 4 PBLs will be developed by Prof. Locati and Marchesi, 6 hours each PBL, scheduled, according to the development of the pandemic, during the first or second semester
· Journal club session. Organized at the end of BLOCK 6 and BLOCK 10 (Prof Marchesi; 16 hours each).
Students will acquire confidence with different sources of scientific information and develop a critical approach based on a constant confrontation with peers and tutors. Each group composed of 3-4 IMS students will discuss an article selected by the teacher, and the groups will dissect the various aspects of the paper, focusing on the pathology, therapeutic options, experimental approach adopted and limitations of the study. Each working group will independently organize its individual and collegial activities and will have regular meetings with a dedicated tutor of the IMS faculty to define the key points to be discussed and identify appropriate information sources. At the end of the activity, each group will deliver a seminar to the whole class, presenting results in a one-day journal club session. Tutors will attend the presentations and guide the following collegial discussion.

ATTENDANCE:
Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam. Unexcused absence is tolerated up to 34% of the course activities. University policy regarding excused illness is followed. During the aa 2020-21, higher tolerance for absence is contemplated, considering the development of the pandemic and the related current difficult conditions for students.
In the PBL sessions, the attendance is considered only if the student attends the whole activity (6 hours). If the student attends the PBL session only partially, the related attendance is not considered.
In the journal club session, attendance is required both during the collegial activities (8 hours) and during the one-day journal club session (8 hours).
Teaching Resources
AK Abbas, AH Lichtman, S Pillai. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY. 9th ed. Elsevier 2017
SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
On specific topics of the program, not discussed during synchronous lessons, additional material will be made available during the course.
General pathology and immunology
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: classroom lectures, lessons by distance learning on Teams, PBL on Teams, journal clubs
Asynchronous learning: The teaching staff will provide audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms), text-based (e-mail, electronic documents) and e-learning material. Students will then have chance to discuss the topic with the teaching staff during scheduled forum sessions.

· PBL (problem-based learning) sessions. 4 PBLs will be developed by Prof. Locati and Marchesi, 6 hours each PBL, scheduled, according to the development of the pandemic, during the first or second semester
· Journal club session. Organized at the end of BLOCK 6 and BLOCK 10 (Prof Marchesi; 16 hours each).
Students will acquire confidence with different sources of scientific information and develop a critical approach based on a constant confrontation with peers and tutors. Each group composed of 3-4 IMS students will discuss an article selected by the teacher, and the groups will dissect the various aspects of the paper, focusing on the pathology, therapeutic options, experimental approach adopted and limitations of the study. Each working group will independently organize its individual and collegial activities and will have regular meetings with a dedicated tutor of the IMS faculty to define the key points to be discussed and identify appropriate information sources. At the end of the activity, each group will deliver a seminar to the whole class, presenting results in a one-day journal club session. Tutors will attend the presentations and guide the following collegial discussion.

ATTENDANCE:
Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam. Unexcused absence is tolerated up to 34% of the course activities. University policy regarding excused illness is followed. During the aa 2020-21, higher tolerance for absence is contemplated, considering the development of the pandemic and the related current difficult conditions for students.
In the PBL sessions, the attendance is considered only if the student attends the whole activity (6 hours). If the student attends the PBL session only partially, the related attendance is not considered.
In the journal club session, attendance is required both during the collegial activities (8 hours) and during the one-day journal club session (8 hours).
Teaching Resources
V Kumar, AK Abbas, JC Aster. ROBBINS AND COTRAN, PATHOLOGIC BASIS OF DISEASES. 10th ed. Elsevier 2018
SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
On specific topics of the program, not discussed during synchronous lessons, additional material will be made available during the course.
Microbiology
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Biochemistry.
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: classroom lectures, lessons by distance learning on Teams, PBL on Teams, journal clubs
Asynchronous learning: The teaching staff will provide audio-video based (pre-recoreded, multimedia platforms), text-based (e-mail, electronic documents) and e-learning material. Students will then have chance to discuss the topic with the teaching staff during scheduled forum sessions.

· PBL (problem-based learning) sessions. 4 PBLs will be developed by Prof. Locati and Marchesi, 6 hours each PBL, scheduled, according to the development of the pandemic, during the first or second semester
· Journal club session. Organized at the end of BLOCK 6 and BLOCK 10 (Prof Marchesi; 16 hours each).
Students will acquire confidence with different sources of scientific information and develop a critical approach based on a constant confrontation with peers and tutors. Each group composed of 3-4 IMS students will discuss an article selected by the teacher, and the groups will dissect the various aspects of the paper, focusing on the pathology, therapeutic options, experimental approach adopted and limitations of the study. Each working group will independently organize its individual and collegial activities and will have regular meetings with a dedicated tutor of the IMS faculty to define the key points to be discussed and identify appropriate information sources. At the end of the activity, each group will deliver a seminar to the whole class, presenting results in a one-day journal club session. Tutors will attend the presentations and guide the following collegial discussion.

ATTENDANCE:
Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam. Unexcused absence is tolerated up to 34% of the course activities. University policy regarding excused illness is followed. During the aa 2020-21, higher tolerance for absence is contemplated, considering the development of the pandemic and the related current difficult conditions for students.
In the PBL sessions, the attendance is considered only if the student attends the whole activity (6 hours). If the student attends the PBL session only partially, the related attendance is not considered.
In the journal club session, attendance is required both during the collegial activities (8 hours) and during the one-day journal club session (8 hours).
Teaching Resources
P Murray, K Rosenthal, M Pfaller. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY. 8th ed. Elsevier 2016
SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
On specific topics of the program, not discussed during synchronous lessons, additional material will be made available during the course.
Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 12 hours
General pathology and immunology
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 15
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 132 hours
Problem Based Learning: 24 hours
Genetics
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours
Microbiology
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 72 hours
Educational website(s)