Physical activity monitoring assessment

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course provides knowledge on the basic elements of physiology, clinic, and statistics in the evaluation of the efficacy of prescribing physical exercise for different patient categories for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease, cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, and for increasing cardiovascular fitness. The course will provide basic knowledge in statistics and methods for interpreting the content of relevant scientific studies, from large epidemiological studies to clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of physical treatment and rehabilitation.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire the ability to: evaluate the results of a scientific study and classify bibliographic and/or study data; read and interpret the results of a cardiopulmonary stress test (respiratory gas analysis and pulmonary ventilation); read (for interpretation not diagnosis) resting and stress ECG; evaluate cardiovascular risk according to validated models listed in the current guidelines of major international scientific societies; understand the principles of sports therapy and the prescription of physical exercise in diverse contexts and pathophysiological models.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
In-person lectures as well as synchronous distance learning
Course syllabus
Data Analysis module:
1. Structure of a scientific article and the role of data analysis
2. Descriptive statistics, tables, graphs, and measurement of central tendency and variability (mean, variance, standard deviation, median, percentiles, quartiles)
3. Gaussian distribution
4. Elements of inferential statistics
- Population and sample
- Estimating the mean and variance in a sample
- Central limit theorem
- Distribution of the sample mean and standard error
- Student's t distribution
- Confidence intervals
5. Hypothesis testing and statistical significance. Type I and type II errors
6. Testing the mean
7. Studies in which subjects are observed before and after treatment: Student's t-test for paired data
8. How to determine the difference in the mean values between two distinct groups: Student's t-test for non-paired data
9. The Fisher-F-distribution. Analysis of variance for independent groups and for repeated measures.
10. Overview of alternative to t-tests and analysis of variance on ranks
11. Analyzing the relationship between two variables: correlation and regression
12. Analysis of categorical data. The chi-squared distribution and the chi-squared test for independence.
13. Fundamentals of biological signals analysis.
14. Case study: the actigraphic study for the monitoring of diurnal activity and sleep quality.
15. Case study: analysis of endocrine-metabolic data by means of mathematical modelling.

Monitoring and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise module
1. The training process
2. Aims and utility of the functional evaluation
3. The basics of measurement process and data analysis
4. Monitoring and evaluating the level of physical activity
5. Monitoring and evaluating the cardiovascular component
6. Monitoring and evaluating the neuromuscular component
7. Monitoring and evaluating the balance and flexibility component
Prerequisites for admission
Data Analysis module: knowledge of first level secondary school mathematics
Monitoring and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise module: prior knowledge of the principles of exercise physiology and training methodology.
Teaching methods
Data Analysis module: frontal lessons alternate theoretical lectures and practical exercises in preparation for the final exam.
Monitoring and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise module: frontal lectures and practical exercises.
Teaching Resources
Data Analysis module
The reference material consists of the material presented during the lectures (pdf documents uploaded onto the Ariel portal. Additional material for further reading can be found in the Tutorial section on the Ariel portal.
Recommended (not compulsory) reading list:
1) Marc M. Triola e Mario F. Triola - Statistica per le discipline biosanitarie, Pearson Editore.
2) S. A. Glantz- Statistica per le Discipline Biomediche, McGraw-Hill Editore.
3) David S. Moore - Statistica di base, Apogeo Editore.

The reference material for the "Monitoring and evaluation of motor activity effectiveness" module consists of scientific papers to explain each topic. Such papers will be uploaded and made available in the Course's website (
Assessment methods and Criteria
Data Analysis module: written exam, 1 hour allowed, 31 multiple choice questions. Grading: 30 and with honors for 31 correct answers, 30 for 30 correct answers, and so on down. The questions will cover the entire course content. Students are required to bring Student's Z and T tables, a calculator, and correction fluid to the exam; use of a mobile phone calculator is not allowed.

Monitoring and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise module: Written report (in APA style) detailing a protocol of physical activity monitoring and evaluation according to the principles discussed throughout the course. This assignment is due by the end of the course itself (or before the beginning of the exam sessions). The exam will be marked out of 30 and the student will be evaluated as following:
LITERATURE REVIEW AND ANALYSIS (max 4 points): self-explaining.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS (max 4 points): student's enrolment in the problem formulation, in the ability to understand cultural and technical issues throughout the work and in the ability to find/imagine new solution to solve them.
RELEVANCE TO THE COURSE'S OBJECTIVES (max 4 points): self-explaining.
comprehensiveness (max 4 points): report's quality with respect to the topic context.
CLARITY AND APPROPRIATENESS OF WORDS (max 3 points): self-explaining.
REPORT'S QUALITY (max 3 punti): perceived quality taking into consideration, wherever possible, the state-of-art of the topic.
DEEPENING OF THE TOPIC (max 3 points): background knowledge particularly in relation to the number of publications related to the topic.
QUALITY OF FIGURES, TABLES AND REFERENCES USED (max 3 points): self-explaining.
QUALITY OF THE REPORT'S ORGANIZATION AND STYLE (max 3 points): self-explaining.
M-EDF/02 - SPORT SCIENCES AND METHODOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 6 hours
Lessons: 51 hours
Educational website(s)
Appointment by email
Appointment by email