Viticultural and enological engineering

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course provides knowledge of the functional schemes of the main enological machines used in the winery and of the main laws and regulations of the plant sector. Moreover, the course provides sizing criteria for enology plants and equipment, and it aims to acquire analysis methods for simple and complex plants.
The course provides a solid preparation on the basic principles of the agricultural mechanization and a detailed knowledge of the machinery and working operations carried out in viticulture, also thanks to several theoretical and practical examples of tractors and implements dimensioning. Particular importance is also paid to the operators' safety and comfort when working with machinery in viticulture.
Expected learning outcomes
Acquisition of technical language skills and technical terminology.
Skills in devising, design and manage production systems and processes related to the wine industry;
Ability to perform economic and functional analyses of different technical solutions along the wine production chain, and to conduct production lines for wine industries, optimizing functionality and sustainability.
Ability for structuring and dimensioning (if not yet existing) or for verifying the congruity (if already working) of the winery machinery, considering the extension, the breeding techniques, the pedo-climatic conditions and the main agronomic goals.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
The teaching methods in the emergency phase will be subject to change with respect to those normally adopted, strictly depending on the evolution of the health emergency and the consequent indications of the Government. If necessary, detailed information will be provided on the teaching notice board.
Course syllabus
Unit 1
1. Design the elements of a winery, based on technical-economic analysis of the plants: fixed costs, variables, the profitability diagram. Perform a preliminary study of the winery: identification of the objectives, analysis of the process cycle, sizing of machine performance, building elements of the winery, study of the lay-out, operating principles, organization of a plant.
2. Functional diagrams of the main oenological machines. The correct sizing of storage capacity.
3. Electricity in the winery: references to the main electrotechnical laws, transformers, electric motors, electrical safety, electricity pricing.
4. Refrigeration systems: purpose of refrigeration, inverted Carnot cycle, cooling efficiency, refrigerants, refrigeration cycle, system components (compressors, condensers, expansion systems, evaporators).
5. The setup of temperature and humidity in the winery: aims, the thermal balance of a conditioned room, the Mollier diagram (description, the transformations of the humid air), plant components.
6. Oenological pumps: centrifugal and volumetric pumps. Characteristic curves, selection criteria, regulation, pumps in series and in parallel.

Unit 2
1. Introduction (0.25 ECTS): usage methods of machinery in viticulture, in Italy and in the countries in which the viticulture is diffused.
2. Elements of agricultural mechanics (0.25 ECTS): mechanics applied to agricultural machinery. Kinematics: linear and angular velocity, radial and tangential acceleration. Dynamics: forces (friction, tension, centrifugal force), work, torque, power. Efficiency concept. Transmission components: gears, belt and pulley drives. Friction clutches.
3. Tractor (1.5 ECTS): Otto and Diesel cycle engines and related devices and systems to reduce polluting emissions. Cooling and lubrication. Filtering of combustion air. Bench tests of diesel engines for agricultural use, performance curves. Transmission: mechanical gearbox, powershift, CVT and related efficiency typical values. Traction means: tyres, steel and rubber tracks. Traction and rolling resistance coefficients.
4. Tractor-implements coupling (1 ECTS): power take-off and its methods of use; hitch and relevant homologation standards; hydraulic lift and its methods of use; hydraulic intakes. Tractor global efficiency (rolling resistance, transmission, PTO, hydraulic system and slippage efficiency).
5. Safety and wellness in viticulture (0.5 ECTS): narrow-track tractors and stability issues (characteristics, standards, tests). Noise and vibrations (characteristics, standards, tests). Joints and cardan shafts and their protection.
6. Viticulture implements (1.5 ECTS): row management: sprayers (methods of use, functional and setting-up periodical checks, maintenance and calibration; operator's protection in pesticide treatments); pruners, toppers, leaf strippers, etc. Inter-row management: rotary hoes, diggers, centrifugal fertilizer spreaders, manure spreaders, flail mower, etc. Grape harvesting: manual and mechanized solutions (grape harvesters: types and working capacity).
7. Practise (1 ECTS): technical visits to manufacturers of tractors and implements used in viticulture; educational visits to wine farms, with testing and recording of data to be processed through numerical applications.
Prerequisites for admission
Unit 1 - The Unit 1 requires good physical and technological knowledge to allow the student to focus on the crucial aspects of the design phases of a system for oenological productions. Basic economic knowledge is important to understand the main indicators used to evaluate the correct sizing of the plants.

Unit 2 - A basic knowledge of the most common agricultural self-propelled machinery and implements used in viticulture is required, as well as a good theoretical and practical acquisition of the most frequently adopted cultivation techniques for the grape production.
Teaching methods
U.D. 1 - The Unit 1 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 4 ECTS
- Classroom practice: 1 ECTS

U.D. 2 - The Unit 2 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 4 ECTS
- Classroom practice: 0.5 ECTS
- Field practice: 1.5 ECTS
Teaching Resources
Unit 1
1. Slides and Lecture notes.
2. G. Nardin, A. Gaudio, G. Antonel, P. Simeoni, Impiantistica enologica, Edagricole
3. Pietro de Vita, Corso di Meccanica Enologica, Hoepli
4. R.P. Singh, D.R. Heldman, Principi di tecnologia alimentare, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Unit 2
- G. Pellizzi (1996) - Mechanics and agricultural mechanization - Edagricole, Bologna;
- P. Biondi (1999) - Agricultural Mechanics - UTET, Turin;
- Official lecture notes and other material useful for exam preparation, available on the websites:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Unit 1 - The exam includes both a written and an oral tests; it is necessary to pass the written test to access the oral one.
Written exam: both numerical sizing exercises (4 or 5 exercises) and theoretical "open" questions (2 or 3 questions) are proposed. Passing the written test (minimum threshold vote 16/30) gives access to the oral exam.
Oral exam: during the lessons the basic elements for the design of a winery project are provided. The students, individually or divided into work groups (max 3 persons), have to present a project including all the design phases analyzed during the course. The project is evaluated with a grade out of 30.
The final grade of U.D.1 will result from the average of the written and oral grades.

Unit 2 - The exam consists of a written and a subsequent oral tests, both to be carried out in each single session. Access to the oral part is only possible with a grade that is not clearly negative (at least 15/30) in that written.
The written test, to be carried out in 1.5 hours, consists of 4 exercises:
- the first two require the dimensioning of a tractor and/or an implement, in the execution of specific cultivation tasks, starting from the provided data;
- the next two consist of the description of broad topics concerning the program.
The oral exam consists of the preliminary discussion of the written part and in the possible coming through of one or more topics related to the entire program, and normally follows immediately the written test.
For the attending students, an on-going test is foreseen (proposed at about half course), consisting of 26 closed-end questions and a description of a broad topic, included in those already presented during the course. The result is communicated to each student in the few days after the on-going test.
The students who obtain an acceptable grade (at least 15/30) in the on-going test may carry out a shortened written test in the subsequent exam, consisting of the solution of only one of the two problems proposed (chosen by the student) and in the description of only one of the two proposed broad topics concerning the program.
Meccanizzazione del vigneto
Field activity: 16 hours
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Pessina Domenico
Progettazione della cantina
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Beghi Roberto
by appointment only
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - via Celoria 2, Milano
by appointment only (preferably defined via e-mail)
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali - via Celoria, 2 - 20133 Milano