- Know the theoretical and methodological elements of the design of the training intervention, including the different phases and problems - - Know the theoretical framework for setting up and evaluating the training intervention and acquire effective methodologies, operational tools and teaching strategies in order to plan training interventions according to the characteristics and needs of the group being trained - Plan and implement interventions to implement and optimize human resources, and the performance of the members of the professional team; evaluate its functionality with respect to the characteristics and purposes of the healthcare facility in which it operates - Evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of training projects, based on objectives and expected results that are consistent with the features and functions of the service offered to users, and with the role of the structure within the health and production system - Evaluate and enhance the roles of the different professional figures in the field of technical health sciences in multidisciplinary training projects aimed at participation and cooperation.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will be able to: - Explain the fundamental concepts of pedagogy - Describe the adult learning theory and andragogy - Discuss the importance of learning from experience, in adult education - Explain the importance, in healthcare contexts, of learning in the field and enlighten the phenomenon of communities of practice - Discuss the process of needs analysis in continuing medical education and their different types: general needs and specific needs of a certain hospital/community service - Consider the difference among explicit, implicit and latent educational needs of the professional and the instruments that are more suitable for the analysis of those different types of needs - Point out the people who can be involved in the analysis of educational needs in healthcare systems. - Discuss the main characteristics of focus groups and create a grid to support the discussion of a group on a certain focus - Describe the different taxonomies of learning objectives, as proposed by J.J. Guilbert - Discuss why learning objectives were overcome by outcome-based education - Discuss the difference between competence and competencies. Describe the main characteristics of competencies - Planning an educational process: discuss the difference between course schedule, course plan, and ECM program of a hospital/local authority - Discuss different options in choosing training methods. Consider the problem of consistency between knowledge/skills to be developed and training methodologies. - Traditional training methods (lectures and seminars): discuss when to use them, explaining strengths and limits of traditional methods. Sort different types of lesson. Point out how to plan and manage an effective lesson. - Examine different active training methods (case analysis, problem based learning, practical skills labs, role-playing), pointing out how they should be managed. - Plan a traineeship for undergraduate students, master students and continuing healthcare education programs - Give examples of tools aimed at facilitating learning in the field (portfolios, learning con-tracts). - Explain the different meanings of "evaluation" in undergraduate, postgraduate and contining education. - Discuss the importance of formative evaluation and describe how feedback should be given. - Explain the Kirkpatrick model, as a tool for planning an evaluation system - Describe how to choose/construct the assessment tools when evaluating knowledge, practical skills, and communication skills. - Discuss the complexity of evaluating long-term results of an educational process. Examine ethical aspects of evaluation. - Discuss regulatory and organizational aspects of continuing education (ECM) in Italy. - Explain the main characteristics of Continuing Professional Development in the Italian CME system and accredited methodologies to support it (audit, quality improvement groups, re-search, stages).
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Introduction to the course. Adult learning, training and education The "unscientific" theory of andragogy The core terms in the pedagogical discourse (pedagogy, didactics, educational sciences) Reflective practice activity: Reading and commenting on an episode of education Training as experience The importance of reflexivity in adult learning Communities of practices: how do they work? Could they be supported? Flipped classroom on different typologies of educational needs: general and specific (external or internal to the Hospital/Local Authority). Different types of educational needs of healthcare professionals (perceived, taken for granted and latent) Tools to gather the different types of educational needs. Overview on questionnaire and interview. Differences between questionnaire and test The focus group as a tool for analyzing educational needs. Group work: construction of the grid for the management of a focus group on a topic chosen by the group From training needs to learning objectives. Guilbert's objectives taxonomies. First taxonomy: general intermediate and specific learning objectives. Second taxonomy: knowledge, psychomotor skills and communication skills Third taxonomy: different levels for the same area (e.g. knowledge area: remembering, integrating knowledge, finding new solutions/problem solving). Strengths and limits of planning a course according to the learning objectives theory. Other models for planning a course in undergraduate, graduate and continuing helathcare professionals education (according to the outcome-based theory or competence theory) Group work: definition of the general functions of a specific healthcare professional profile; identification of some activities that correspond to a function of that professional profile; identification of the tasks that must be put in place to guarantee a certain activity). Choosing the right methodologies when planning the training. The problem of coherence between learning objectives and methodologies. Other elements to consider when choosing learning methodologies. The choice of learning methodologies considering the "life" of the group of participants. The learning methodologies according to Guilbert's III taxonomy of learning objectives. Flipped classroom on the lesson: different typologies, strategies to plan and manage a lesson and communication skills required How to make a lesson interactive. Group work: how to plan a lesson Methods to prepare/support students/professionals for learning in the field: skills lab/simulated activities; case analysis, clinical supervision Instruments for supporting training in the field: Learning contracts, Portfolios, Cases and self-reported cases; The complexity of the evaluation What to evaluate? Programs, outcomes and results of training. The assessment of learning as one of the components of the evaluation of a program results. Tools for the objective assessment of knowledge: different types of tests. Group work: writing a MCQ test Evaluating clinical skills in simulated or real contexts Methods for the assessment of clinical skills: written assessments, assessment in the field, clinical simulations (OSCE), portfolios. The Italian system of CME New frontiers of CME: continuing professional development and learning in the field
Prerequisites for admission
The course is held through traditional lectures, small group activities, flipped classroom, reflective writing activities, online case analysis (ECM course) under the guidance of the teacher. The educational activities are supported by the Ariel platform of the University of Milan (www.ariel.unimi.it). Within the "Design and management of learning programs" site, students will find: course news, abstracts of the lessons, slides, paper materials (grids, diagrams, etc., which will be analyzed during the lessons), scientific publications to deepen some topics.
- Zannini L. Fare formazione nei contesti di prevenzione e cura, Brescia-Lecce: Pensa Multimedia, 2015. - Guilbert JJ., Guida Pedagogica. Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità, Ginevra, 2001. IV edi-zione italiana a cura di G. Palasciano e A. Lotti, Bari. Edizioni dal Sud, 2002, cap. 1. - Articles from international literature will also be available, which will be uploaded to the Ariel course website
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be based on a written test with 54 multiple choice questions (MCQ) and on the analysis of a CME course, which will require the students to answer 3 MCQs and/or short open questions. Through the MCQ test the students will get a mark from 0/30 to 27/30. From the CME case based questions the students will get a mark from 0/30 to 6/30. The final test grade (sum of MCQ test mark + case-based test mark) will range from 18/30 to 30/30 cum laude. Obtaining at least 18/30 in the test is compulsory to pass the exam. The final result will be published confidentially on the course website on the Ariel platform. The exam will be based on the References listed below and on the materials/topics discussed in the class.