Food chemistry and analysis

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The educational objective of the course is to provide students knowledge on the main macro-micronutrients present in food matrices, the chemical and physical properties and the reactivity of these components. The course provides also the knowledges concerning the chemical composition of the food products for their evaluation under the nutritional profile and the standard of commerce. Finally the course will give the knowledge of applied analytical chemistry necessary for the evaluation of a food product.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will have knowledge of the chemical components present in foods and their role for compositional, nutritional, technological and analytical methods, official or otherwise, for food control. The acquired Knowledge will enable the student to perform simple analysis using the basic analytical instrumentation and decide which to perform the classification by type of food with particular reference to quality control and authenticity. The student will be able to attend a food chemistry laboratory.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Lectures and laboratory lessons will be online on the Teams platform, according to the official timetable of the course. Additional materials (photos, videos) will be available for the best understanding of laboratory analyses. The teacher will prepare laboratory activities to verify the learning of the teaching. Sporadic face-to-face orientation meetings are also scheduled, if the regulations concerning social distancing allow it. The methods and criteria for participating, that require a reservation with a special app, will be published in time on the Ariel pages of the course,
Program and reference material
The program and reference material will not change.
Verification of learning and evaluation criteria
The examination will take place in oral form using the Microsoft Teams platform. If it is also possible to return to the classroom, training and assessment activities will be held on a voluntary basis and without affecting the final evaluation. The examination, in particular, will be aimed at: - ascertaining the achievement of the objectives in terms of knowledge, understanding through the solution of calculation exercises; - ascertain the specific language relating to the chemical analysis of foods and knowledge of the operations to be carried out.
Course syllabus
The course supplies the students the knowledges concerning the chemical composition of the food products for their evaluation under the nutritional profile and the standard of commerce. However the main goal of this course is to give the knowledge of applied analytical chemistry necessary for quality and genuineness control of food products.
Macronutrients, micronutrients and not in foods, traditional and novel foods. Physico-chemical and sensorial modifications of chemical components in relation to foods processing and storage. Contamination of food products. Additives. Quality. Authenticity. Typicity of food products. Importance of chemical analysis of food, principle, protocol and step of an analysis applied to a food matrix. Centesimal composition of foods. Classical (gravimetric and volumetric) and instrumental (spectrophotometry, liquid and gas chromatography) analyses . Official analyses and not. Qualitative and quantitative analyses. Legislative aspects. Sampling systems. Water and mineral elements in foods: properties and analysis, calculation exercises. Fats in foods: chemistry, analyses, calculation exercises. Nitrogen fraction in foods: classification and analyses, calculation exercises. Sugars in foods: classification, reducing properties, analysis by Fehling, polarimetry and enzyme. Reactivity of carbohydrates and nitrogen fraction (marker of thermal damage and technological treatment). Pigments, volatile aromatic substances in food, natural and synthetic antioxidants: chemical characteristics and analysis methods. Chemical composition, process production, legislation and analyses of following food products : drinkable and mineral waters, milk, butter, olive oil, oil of seeds, margarine, cereals and by-products, musts and wines, vinegar, alcoholic beverages, beer, fruit juices.
Practical laboratory on milk, oil, wine, flour, fruit juice. Milk analyses: density, acidity, total and dry residual, fat matter, fosfatase and peroxidase test. Wine analyses: total and volatile acidity, SO2, alcoholic content, reducing sugars (Fehling), dry extract. Flour analyses: humidity, ashes, acidity, proteins (Kjeldhal and electroforetic applications), fat matter. Olive oil analyses: acidity, peroxides, absorbance UV, Kreiss test, unsaponificable and TLC. HPLC analyses: determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices. GC/MS applications on volatile compounds of food products.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledge of inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and analytical chemistry.
Teaching methods
The teaching consists of frontal lectures (teorical lessons with slides), classroom exercices with examples of protocols of analyses (blackboard and PC) and individual practical activities in the chemical laboratory.
Teaching Resources
It is highly recommended to use the files available on the Ariel website including the slides shown in class room, the official regulations concerning food products treated during the course, the safety standards in the chemical laboratories and the analytical methods relating to the practical experiments carried out in the laboratory.
Proposed text books are: Food The Chemistry of its Components - Tom Coultate 2015 - ed. Royal Society of Chemistry; A Laboratory Manual of Food Analysis - Shalini Sehgal, 2016 - ed. I K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd; Fennema's Food Chemistry - Srinivasan Damodaran e Kirk L. Parkin 2017 ed. CRC press. Damodaran- 5th ed. 2017.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Some learning tests, concerning the topics treated will be proposed in the classroom, and in a collective way, in order, to verify the understanding (theoretical and calculation), During the laboratory sessions, students will have to acquire the data necessary for the calculation of the analytical result and to comment on these, critically in the sheets (assembled in the report) distributed by the teacher, according to what has been treated in classroom and/or reported in the regulations.
The final exam is a oral test and including calculations that have been discussed in the course. The exam modality is considered robust to verify the student's knowledge on the theoretical and calculation contents of the course based on the correctness of the language, understanding of the contents and expression of the required analytical parameters. The evaluation of the test is expressed in thirtieths.
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 8
Computer room practicals: 8 hours
Laboratories: 24 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Cosio Maria Stella
by e-mail appointment
office: Via Mangiagalli 25 - fifth floor