Plant biology

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
64
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/01 BIO/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide basic knowledge of plant cytology useful for understanding the structural organization of higher plants and preparatory to the study of biochemical and physiological processes that determine productivity.
The course aims to provide basic knowledge of cytology, heredity and plant morphology useful for understanding the structural organization of higher plants and preparatory to the study of biochemical and physiological processes that determine Productivity.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the composition, function and characteristics of biological molecules and plant cell structures.
Knowledge of the systems and tissue of plant organs. Understanding of biological processes of growth, differentiation, reproduction and heredity.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
year
Lectures: will be held on the Microsoft Teams (MT) platform and can be followed both in real time, based on the timetable of the first semester, and as a recording of the lesson held via MT, available to students on the same platform.
The program and reference material remains unchanged. The exam format may change in the event that the regulations relating to the current health emergency do not allow physical attendance: in this case the written test in person will be replaced by a final oral exam on the Microsoft Teams platform.
The calendar of all lessons, the lesson recordings and the Power Point files for each lecture will be uploaded to Ariel and will remain available for the entire academic year, until the exam sessions of January-February 2022. All communications will be given via the bulletin board on Ariel.
Course syllabus
Mod. 1_Biology of Plant Cell
The characteristics of living organisms. The role of the plant in the biosphere. Energy and metabolism. Autotrophy and heterotrophy. Overview of the Plant Kingdom. Principles of biological chemistry. Chemical bonds and chemical functional groups. Water and the hydrogen bond. The structure and function of biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. The theory of the cell. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The structure and function of biological membranes. Cytosol and cytoskeleton. Endomembranes: endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes. Ribosomes, microbodies and spherosomes. Mitochondria: structure and function. The plant cell: genesis, structure and function of plastids, vacuole and cell wall. Osmosis and cell enlargement. The nucleus and chromosomes. Cell division: DNA replication, mitosis. Genes and karyotype. From genotype to phenotype: the genetic code, DNA transcription and translation. Mutations. Short accounts on recombinant DNA techniques.

Mod. 2_Morphology and Anatomy of Plants
Plants with pseudo-tissues and plants with true tissues. Alternation of generations (metagenetic cycles): aplontic, diplontic, aplodiplontic. Examples of metagenetic cycles and the development of structures during adaptation to terrestrial habitats: algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, spermatophytes. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (mono- and dicotyledons). Tissues and tissue systems: meristematic tissues and adult tissues. The primary body of the plant: organography and anatomy of the root and stem. Leaf morphology and anatomy. The secondary body of the plant: origin, development and functioning of the cribro-vascular and subero-phelodermic changes, development of the secondary structure of the root and stem. The flower: organography and anatomy. Agamic and gamic reproduction: micro- and macrosporogenesis, micro- and macrogametogenesis. Development of the embryo and seed. The germination of the seed and the formation of the seedling. Structure and type of fruit. Sexual reproduction and meiosis. Character inheritance: Mendelian and post Mendelian models.
Prerequisites for admission
None
Teaching methods
Lectures
Teaching Resources
Mod. 1_Biology of Plant Cell
Teaching material will be available for students at the Ariel website https://nnegriniba.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx
Recommended textbooks: 1.Sadava D, Hillis D.M., Heller H.C., Hacker S. "Elementi di Biologia e Genetica", ed. Zanichelli; 2. Solomon, Berg, Martin "La cellula" e "Genetica: la continuità della vita", ed. EdiSES
Other textbooks: Alberts B., Bray D., Hopkin K., Johnson A., Lewis J., Raff M., Roberts K., Walter P. "L'essenziale di Biologia molecolare della cellula", ed. Zanichelli

Mod. 2_Morphology and Anatomy of Plants
Teaching material will be available for students at the Ariel website
Pasqua G., Abbate G., Forni C. "Botanica Generale e Diversità Vegetale", ed. Piccin
Assessment methods and Criteria
Mod. 1_ Biology of Plant Cell
Biology of Plant Cell exam will include 1 written test in attendance at the end of the course. The written test will include: 25 closed-ended questions (verification of knowledge learning) + 4 open-ended synthetic questions (verification of comprehension and ability to synthesize) + a broad open-ended question on a topic of the program (verification of ability to set out a detailed discussion on a scientific theme). The evaluation will be graded out of thirty and the grade will be communicated through the Ariel website. There will be only one exam format, to be undertaken by both attending and non-attending students.

Mod. 2_Morphology and Anatomy of Plants
The Morphology and Anatomy exam will include a written test in person at the end of the course, consisting of: 20 closed-ended questions + two broad open-ended questions. The evaluation will be graded out of thirty and will be communicated through the Ariel website. There will be only one exam format, to be undertaken by both attending and non-attending students.

The final assessment of Plant Biology will be calculated as the average of the grades obtained in the tests of the two modules (Biology of the Plant Cell + Morphology and Anatomy of Plants).
Biologia della cellula vegetale
BIO/01 - GENERAL BOTANY - University credits: 0
BIO/03 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND APPLIED BOTANY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Negrini Noemi
Morfologia ed anatomia delle piante
BIO/01 - GENERAL BOTANY - University credits: 0
BIO/03 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND APPLIED BOTANY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Pierce Simon