Brewing and spirits technology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The aim of the course is to give students basic knowledge for management of the fundamental biochemical and technological aspects involved in brewing and in the production of spirits. Next to the technology, students will learn also about the legislation in the field of alcoholic beverages making.
Expected learning outcomes
The acquired skills are aimed at knowledge of raw materials, processing technologies in beer and spirits and the factors that affect the quality of final products.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
The lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform starting from 21st October. More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic years 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health.
Course syllabus
BEER- Economic indicators and legislation. Raw materials used in brewing. Structure of the barley grain. Enzymic modification and biochemical changes occurring during germination. Characteristics and production of the main classes of malts used in brewing. Milling of malt and wort production (mashing). Water quality (source, ionic composition, treatments). Principal mashing methods and mashing biochemistry (starch conversion, proteolysis..). Hops: processing and forms used in brewing, specifications and introductory hop chemistry. Wort boiling, clarification and cooling. Brewing yeast management and fermentation. Brewing yeast taxonomy and biochemistry. Biological and chemical processes that contribute to the maturation of beer. Formation of non-biological hazes and stabilisation against non-biological haze. Clarification and filtration. Bottling. Sensory analysis of beer. SPIRITS - Distillation principles. The properties of ethanol-water mixture. Batch and continuous distillation. Processing of grappa, Cognac, brandy, whisky, rum, gin and vodka.
Prerequisites for admission
Inorganic and organic chemistry; Biochemistry; Microbiology.
Teaching methods
AGR/15 - SCIENZE E TECNOLOGIE ALIMENTARI - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: De Noni Ivano
Teaching Resources
Slides of lectures available at
Suggested books:
George J. Fix - Principles of Brewing Science: A Study of Serious Brewing Issues (Inglese). Ed. Brewers publications
T. Zangrando e M. Marconi. Birra: materie prime, tecnologie, stili. Ed. Edagricole
Assessment methods and Criteria
The in-presence exam consists of a written test of 30 questions each with 4 closed answers. The exam will last 45 minutes. In case of a new COVID emergency, the exam will be held orally with the Teams platform. It will last about 30 minutes and it must be taken only by appointment to be requested by email.
In order to take advantage of the facilities provided for the exam, DSA students must first notify the Office ( of their situation. Students enrolled in an examination call and who no longer wish to take the exam are required to promptly inform the teacher. The examination method is considered effective for achieving an assessment of skills acquired by the student in the context of the technologies of alcoholic beverages taking into account the topics covered in the lectures.
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: De Noni Ivano
By appointment
Sezione Industrie Agrarie - DiSTAM