Understand the chemical nature of fundamental biological phenomena such as nutrition, respiration, energy metabolism and membrane exchanges; Know the elementary principles of general pharmacology and some aspects of the pharmacology of the peripheral system, the skin diseases and the musculoskeletal system.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will know: · describe and use, with simple calculations, the main quantities and their units of measurement used in chemistry (atomic and molecular mass, mole and molar mass); · recognize the various types of chemical reactions and to balance their stoichiometric coefficients rationally; · describe the various ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed, the solubility and the factors that influence it; · explain the concept of the reaction balance and indicate how certain parameters can modify it; · discuss the concept of acids and bases according to the Broensted-Lowry and buffer solution theory; · describe the concept of pH of an aqueous solution and calculate it in the case of both strong and weak acids and bases; · know and discuss some basic concepts of electrochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics; · recognize the functional groups that characterize organic compounds, with particular mention to those that are present in the structures of compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids. · know the main metabolic pathways of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids.
· the fate of drugs in the body: knowing all the processes of transport, bio-transformation, distribution and elimination /(ADME) · the action of drugs at the level of organs and systems, considering their mechanism of action at the cellular and molecular level; · the characteristics of some classes of pharmacological agents that act on the systemic circulation, at the skin level and on the musculoskeletal system that could affect the future professional activity · the features of some drugs for selected chronic therapies considering some possible effects on the locomotor apparatus
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY Drug therapy, risks and benefits Pharmaceutical preparations and formulations and their influence on the drug's action Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics The development of a drug: pre-clinical and clinical trials Role of healthcare professionals in clinical trials Pharmacokinetics Dose / response relationship Plasma concentration / pharmacological effect relationship Therapeutic interval and toxicity Minimum effective concentration (CME) and maximum tolerated concentration (CMT) Latency, intensity and duration of the pharmacological effect Routes of administration of drugs and selection criteria Influence of the route of administration on latency, intensity and duration of the effect Maintenance of stable plasma levels: intravenous infusion, repeated administration, therapeutic regimen, loading and maintenance dose ABSORPTION OF DRUGS Mechanisms of transfer of drugs through cell membranes: passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion, active transport and passive transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis Factors that influence absorption DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS IN THE BODY Real and apparent volume of distribution Factors affecting distribution and redistribution BIOTRANSFORMATION Meaning and consequences of biotransformation reactions Phase I and II reactions Factors that influence biotransformation processes: exogenous and endogenous causes Enzyme induction and inhibition ELIMINATION Main elimination routes: biliary and renal PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS Bioavailability, plasma half-life, volume of distribution and clearance of drugs ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS Classification and causes of adverse reactions DRUG RESPONSE VARIABILITY Factors that determine interindividual variability: genetic makeup, sex, age, physiological and pathological conditions Drug interactions and their consequences Intolerance, idiosyncrasy and hypersensitivity PHARMACODYNAMIC The "targets" of drugs: main classes and their characteristics Agonist and antagonist drugs Efficacy, potency and clinical significance NON STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs) Mechanism of action Pharmacological action: antipyretic effect, analgesic effect, anti-inflammatory effect Therapeutic use. Undesirable effects STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS Synthesis and regulation of glucocorticoid release Pharmacological effects and mechanism of action Side effects and contraindications Clinical use ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Antibiotic- therapy Bacteria and their biochemical reactions as potential pharmacological targets Mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance PHARMACOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE Bisphosphonates, vitamin D3, calcitonin and new agents: mechanism of action, pharmacological effect and undesirable effects
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required. The course must be accessible to students from different high schools.
Rossi Cuomo Riccardi Farmacologia per le Professioni sanitarie Feltrinelli Govoni S Farmacologia Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Di Giulio et al. Farmacologia generale e speciale. Per le lauree sanitarie Piccin
Assessment methods and Criteria
- A written exam consisting of multiple-choice questions (15) and open questions (2). - The written questions will be evaluated after a comparative reading, and an objective evaluation based on the correctness of the assertions. - Approved calculator. The tests are offered at least 6 times for each academic year