Chimical and pharmacological sciences (third year)

A.Y. 2021/2022
2
Max ECTS
20
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/14
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Understand the chemical nature of fundamental biological phenomena such as nutrition, respiration, energy metabolism and membrane exchanges; Know the elementary principles of general pharmacology and some aspects of the pharmacology of the peripheral system, the skin diseases and the musculoskeletal system.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will know:
· describe and use, with simple calculations, the main quantities and their units of measurement used in chemistry (atomic and molecular mass, mole and molar mass);
· recognize the various types of chemical reactions and to balance their stoichiometric coefficients rationally;
· describe the various ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed, the solubility and the factors that influence it;
· explain the concept of the reaction balance and indicate how certain parameters can modify it;
· discuss the concept of acids and bases according to the Broensted-Lowry and buffer solution theory;
· describe the concept of pH of an aqueous solution and calculate it in the case of both strong and weak acids and bases;
· know and discuss some basic concepts of electrochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics;
· recognize the functional groups that characterize organic compounds, with particular mention to those that are present in the structures of compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
· know the main metabolic pathways of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids.

· the fate of drugs in the body:
knowing all the processes of transport, bio-transformation, distribution and elimination /(ADME)
· the action of drugs at the level of organs and systems, considering their mechanism of action at the cellular and molecular level;
· the characteristics of some classes of pharmacological agents that act on the systemic circulation, at the skin level and on the musculoskeletal system that could affect the future professional activity
· the features of some drugs for selected chronic therapies considering some possible effects on the locomotor apparatus
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
For the lessons of the 1st semester the teaching, given the current health situation, will be carried out entirely at a distance.
Course syllabus
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY
Drug therapy, risks and benefits
Pharmaceutical preparations and formulations and their influence on the drug's action
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
The development of a drug: pre-clinical and clinical trials
Role of healthcare professionals in clinical trials
Pharmacokinetics
Dose / response relationship
Plasma concentration / pharmacological effect relationship
Therapeutic interval and toxicity
Minimum effective concentration (CME) and maximum tolerated concentration (CMT)
Latency, intensity and duration of the pharmacological effect
Routes of administration of drugs and selection criteria
Influence of the route of administration on latency, intensity and duration of the effect
Maintenance of stable plasma levels: intravenous infusion, repeated administration, therapeutic regimen, loading and maintenance dose
ABSORPTION OF DRUGS
Mechanisms of transfer of drugs through cell membranes: passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion, active transport and passive transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis Factors that influence absorption
DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS IN THE BODY
Real and apparent volume of distribution Factors affecting distribution and redistribution
BIOTRANSFORMATION
Meaning and consequences of biotransformation reactions
Phase I and II reactions
Factors that influence biotransformation processes: exogenous and endogenous causes
Enzyme induction and inhibition
ELIMINATION
Main elimination routes: biliary and renal
PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS
Bioavailability, plasma half-life, volume of distribution and clearance of drugs
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
Classification and causes of adverse reactions
DRUG RESPONSE VARIABILITY
Factors that determine interindividual variability: genetic makeup, sex, age, physiological and pathological conditions
Drug interactions and their consequences Intolerance, idiosyncrasy and hypersensitivity
PHARMACODYNAMIC
The "targets" of drugs: main classes and their characteristics
Agonist and antagonist drugs
Efficacy, potency and clinical significance
NON STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)
Mechanism of action
Pharmacological action: antipyretic effect, analgesic effect, anti-inflammatory effect
Therapeutic use. Undesirable effects
STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS
Synthesis and regulation of glucocorticoid release
Pharmacological effects and mechanism of action Side effects and contraindications Clinical use
ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Antibiotic- therapy
Bacteria and their biochemical reactions as potential pharmacological targets
Mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance
PHARMACOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE
Bisphosphonates, vitamin D3, calcitonin and new agents: mechanism of action, pharmacological effect and undesirable effects
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required. The course must be accessible to students from different high schools.
Teaching methods
Lectures
Teaching Resources
Rossi Cuomo Riccardi
Farmacologia per le Professioni sanitarie
Feltrinelli
Govoni S
Farmacologia
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Di Giulio et al.
Farmacologia generale e speciale. Per le lauree sanitarie
Piccin
Assessment methods and Criteria
- A written exam consisting of multiple-choice questions (15) and open questions (2).
- The written questions will be evaluated after a comparative reading, and an objective evaluation based on the correctness of the assertions.
- Approved calculator.
The tests are offered at least 6 times for each academic year
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Brini Anna Teresa
Professor(s)
Reception:
By e-mail to set an appointment
Via Vanvitelli,32 20129 Milano o I.R.C.C.S. GALEAZZI