o Drug Absorption, Distribution and Excretion. Basic pharmacokinetics
o Herbal drug-drug interactions
o Introduction to pharmacognosy: Definition and classification of natural drugs, variability of active principles, secondary metabolism and its physiological function, preservation and analysis of vegetable and animal drugs, quality control, standardization, natural drugs in Pharmacopoeia.
o Alkaloid-based drugs: generalities of alkaloids
o Drugs containing indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia serpentina, Physostigma venenosum, ergot alkaloids, other hallucinogenic indole alkaloids
o Drugs containing tropane alkaloids: Erythroxylum coca, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Hyosciamus niger
o Drugs containing imidazole alkaloids: Pilocarpus Jaborandi
o Drugs containing isoquinoline and phenanthrenic alkaloids: curares, Papaver somniferum (opium varieties, major opium alkaloids, introduction to central mechanisms of nociception, opioids, opiates and their receptors, clinic and therapeutic use of opiates, abuse and withdrawal syndrome).
o Drugs containing phenylalkylamine alkaloids: Catha edulis, Ephedra sinica, Pejote and San Pedro Cactus, Capsicum (introduction to peripheral transmission of pain and its interference by capsaicin)
o Drugs containing piperidine/pyridine alkaloids: Areca cathecu, Lobelia inflata, Nicotiana tabacum
o Drugs containing quinolinic alkaloids: Cinchona spp., alkaloid content, pharmacological properties of the china components, antimalarial activity (introduction to malaria, plasmodium life cycle, therapy and prevention of malaria) and antiarrhythmic activity.
o Xanthine-based drugs: Coffea spp., Thea spp., Theobroma cacao, Cola acuminata, Ilex paraguensis
o Psychostimulants and hallucinogens: definition of substances with depressing, anxiolytic, stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects on the CNS. Erythroxylum coca, Cannabis sativa. Amanita muscaria, Piptadenia peregrina, Peganum harmala, Psilocybe mexicana, Lophophora williamsii. Psychedelic anaesthetics: ketamine, fenciclydine.
o Natural antidepressants: Hypericum perforatum (characteristics, active components, mechanism of action, therapeutic use)
o Hints on neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Ginkgo Biloba, antioxidants (green tea, grapes, Curcuma longa)
o Carbohydrate-based drugs: starch (wheat, corn, rice and potato), cellulose. Acacia senegal, Astragalus gummifer, Sterculia spp, Cyanopsis tetragonolobus (arabic, tragacanth, karaia e guar gum), Malva silvestris, Althea officinalis, Linum usitatissimum, Tilia spp., Aloe spp., vegetable fibers.
o Glycoside-based drugs: Anthraquinone glycosides: Cassia spp., Ramnus spp., Rheum spp., Aloe spp (therapeutic uses, mechanism of action, side effects). Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis spp., Strophantus spp. (use in congestive cardiac failure, mechanism of action, side effects).
o Lipid-based drugs: simple and complex lipids, fatty acid composition of lipids, features, quality control, nutritional and pharmacological aspects of vegetable oils. Olive oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter, soybean oil, evening primrose oil, castor oil.
o Flavonoid-based drugs: overview and protective roles of antioxidants. Passiflora incarnata, Citrus spp., Ginkgo biloba.
o Phenolic and Salicylate drugs: Ursina grapes, Populus e Salix.
o Solphorate-based drugs: Allium Sativum.
o Drugs acting on the immune system: Introduction to immune function and to factors that depress the immune system, natural immunomodulators and their mechanism of action. Echinacea spp., Panax ginseng, Eleutherococcum, Witania, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thuja occidentalis, Angelica sinensis, Polygonum multifloreum, Astragalus membranaceus, Picrorhiza kurroa
o Antitumor drugs: incidence and pathogenesis of human cancesr, carcinogenesis and tumor transformation, natural antitumor agents. antibiotics; Vinca spp., Taxus, Phodophyllum peltatum, Camptotheca acuminata, other phytotherapic drugs with antitumor activity (Viscum album, Evening Primerose, sho-saiko-to).