Nutrition Physiology and Pharmacology, and Dietetic products

A.Y. 2021/2022
10
Max ECTS
80
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/14 CHIM/10
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course is divided into three parts: 1) Dietetic products; 2) Nutrition pharmacology and 3) Physiology of Nutrition. The course provides the basic elements and the relative applications to allow pharmacists to reach an advanced degree of knowledges in the field of diet and well-being, dietary products and food supplements.

The teaching in Dietetic Products addresses the dietary and toxicological aspects of the main classes of nutrients: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals. This part of the course aims to provide the basic information needed by a pharmacist operating in the public/private pharmacy or in a hospital environment to give advice and suggestions on dietary products. Furthermore, the basic knowledge is critical to direct the consumers' choice to the correct food integration, if necessary. This first part of the course is preliminary to the description of the different dietary products.
During the course, the main categories of dietary products aimed to satisfy nutritional needs are taken into consideration, according to the different physio-pathological conditions. Particular attention is paid to breastfeeding and artificial feeding of healthy children and preterm infants. The biochemical and clinical bases for the preparation of products intended for people who are suffering for milk allergy, metabolic food intolerances (phenylketonuria, galactosemia, etc.) and celiac disease are therefore considered.
Functional foods, probiotics and prebiotics, and supplements for athletes are also treated.

The module Nutrition Pharmacology aims to provide students the recent knowledge on pharmacological properties (and the underlying mechanisms) of some food components in view of a correct use of foods for health maintenance, for prevention and (when possible) for the treatment of human diseases. A critical analysis of results will be obtained through the evaluation of scientific papers published on international journals. The final goal is to provide students the bases to develop the capability to critically analyze the information available through mass media about diets and active food components.

The module of Physiology of Nutrition aims to examine in depth the knowledge of the motor, secretory and absorption functions of the digestive system, as well as the nutritional needs of macro and micronutrients in physiological conditions. At the end of the course the student will be able to know the digestive process and the metabolic fate of the main micro and macro nutrients, the daily requirement to maintain good health state of the and the adequate intake of nutrients in relation to different ages.
Expected learning outcomes
The course of Dietary Products, Nutrigtion pharmacology and Physiology of Nutrition aims to prepare the pharmacist to address his important role as a health professional also in the field of nutrition, dietary products and food supplements.

The teaching Dietetic Products intends to adequately prepare the pharmacist to answer the questions of the average consumer, who often needs clarifications on his possible nutritional problems both in the case that he is a healthy person (vitamin or mineral integration) and in the case in which he is a carrier of associated pathologies. The ability to respond correctly, on scientifically proven data, to the demands of consumers is critical for a correct nutrition education of the population and to direct groups at risk to the appropriate dietary solutions.

The teaching Nutrition Pharmacology will offer knowledge on pharmacological properties (and the underlying mechanisms) of some food components, their impact on gut microbiota and on some human diseases. Ability to critically evaluate data included in scientific papers and the information derived from mass media campaigns about diets and active food components.

At the end of the teaching of Physiology of Nutrition, the student would be able to know the digestive, absorption and metabolic processes of the main micro and macronutrients introduced with the diet. The student should also be able to assess the daily energy requirement necessary for a state of good health at the different ages and physiological states, such as pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
year
If the health authorities will not allow the presence of students in the classrooms, the lessons will be given via Microsoft Teams or Zoom. Recordings of the lessons will be available on the Ariel and Microsoft Stream platforms.
The type of exam will depend on the decisions by health authorities. Students will be informed in due time.
Prerequisites for admission
Students can take the exam of the three modules only if they have passed the required prerequisites (General biochemistry, Pharmacognosy, Physiology).
Assessment methods and Criteria
Final grades are registered by the teacher of Nutrition pharmacology, after passing all three module exams with at least a minimal score of 18/30. The final score will be the average of the three different exams.

The exams for the Dietetic Products module are structured as follows:
Once a year, in June, there is a written test based on 40 questions (3 open and 37 multiple choice questions). Open questions are evaluated from 0 to 2 points in relation to the completeness. For multiple choice questions, 1 point is assigned to each correct question, 0 for the unanswered questions, and -0.3 for each wrong question. The written test takes 90 minutes. The total score obtained is transformed into thirtieth and the results are published on Ariel platform using the student's identification number. The written exam is aimed primarily at attending students but open to those who have passed the preparatory exams.
Ongoing students are also guaranteed at least 7 oral exam sessions during teaching breaks. Extra sessions are also open in different periods only for repeating and out-of-course students.

For the module of Nutrition Pharmacology, the exams will follow a monthly schedule. See the schedule posted on Ariel website. The exam consists in a written test, lasting 45 minutes, with 30 multiple-choice questions.
Scoring:
1 will be given for each correct answer,
0 for those not given
-0.2 for wrong answers.


For the module of Nutrition Physiology, the exam is a 60-minute written test consisting of 15 true / false questions and three open questions. Each correct true / false answer is worth 0.4 points and each open question will be evaluated from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 8.0 points.

IMPORTANT: If the health authorities will not allow the presence of students in the classrooms, the written exam will be given using the Moodle+SEB platform with Teams. Students will be informed in due time.
Dietetic products
Course syllabus
The teaching covers the following topics:

PART 1. NUTRIENTS: DIETARY AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Energetic and functional sources (proteins, sugars, lipids, minerals and vitamins); their nutritional and toxicological aspects
Diet as a tool for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases
Vegetarian diet

PART 2. CHILDHOOD
Breastfeeding
Products for artificial feeding (term and preterm neonates)
Products for weaning

PART 3. PRODUCTS FOR METABOLIC DISEASES
Products for breastfeeding and feeding for metabolic diseases
Hyperphenylalaninemia
Tyrosinemia
Defects in the urea cycle
Cystic fibrosis
Galactosemia
Favism

PART 4. PRODUCTS FOR LIPIDIC METABOLISM DISORDERS
Cholesterol metabolism disorders
Triglyceride metabolism disorders

PART 5. PRODUCTS FOR Allergic AND CELIAC PATIENTS
Products for people with food allergies
Products for subjects with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

PART 6. OTHER PRODUCTS
Products containing probiotics and / or prebiotics
Products for the athletes
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom using slides and IT tools.
Teaching Resources
In addition to the slides on the Ariel platform, it is possible to use as a reference text:
PRODOTTI DIETETICI - Edizione PICCIN Nuova Libraria
Nutrition Pharmacology
Course syllabus
Detailed program of Nutrition pharmacology:
· Introduction to the course. Nutraceuticals and functional foods.
· Claims on functional foods: regulations in USA and Europe.
· Food components with antioxidant activity. Formation, role and effects of free radicals. Endogenous antioxidants. Alterations of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms in some diseases.
· Exogenous antioxidants in foods. Polyphenols: effects and mechanism of action.
· Examples of fruits and vegetables containing polyphenols: red fruits, strawberry, and blueberry. In vitro evidence and clinical studies.
· Active components of chili peppers, other spices and herbs.
· Carotenoids and vitamins.
· Introduction to microbiota: how can we modify it to improve our health and prevent diseases? (first part).
· Microbiota (second part). Clinical cases characterized by microbiota alterations. Treatment opportunities.
· Camelia sinensis: description, active constituents with pharmacological properties, in vitro evidence and clinical studies on the health benefits of tea.
· Cocoa and chocolate.
· Lipids in foods
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom using slides and IT tools.
Teaching Resources
The slides presented and the recordings of the lessons will be available on Ariel platform.
Nutrition Physiology
Course syllabus
The course will cover the following topics:
- general concepts of nutrition;
- body composition
- basal metabolism and its determination
- functions of the digestive system;
- nervous and hormonal mechanisms of control of digestive function;
- dietary carbohydrates (food distribution, digestion and absorption, role in the organism and recommended dietary intake);
- dietary fiber;
- dietary proteins (essential aa, distribution in food, digestion and absorption of proteins, role in the organism and recommended dietary intake);
- dietary lipids (essential fatty acids, distribution in foods, digestion and absorption of lipids, role in the body and recommended dietary intake);
- water, vitamins, and trace elements (body content, distribution and functions);
- nutritional needs from neonatal to old age, pregnancy, and menopause;
- central and peripheral control of food intake.
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom using slides and IT tools.
Teaching Resources
The slides of the lessons on the Ariel platform of the module. A textbook of Physiology for the study of the digestive system. More indication will be given at lesson and on Ariel and Microsoft Teams platforms.
Dietetic products
CHIM/10 - FOOD CHEMISTRY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Nutrition Pharmacology
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Bellosta Stefano
Nutrition Physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Marciani Paola

Linea MZ

Responsible
Lesson period
year
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Prerequisites for admission
Students can take the exam of the three modules only if they have passed the required prerequisites (General biochemistry, Pharmacognosy, Physiology).
Assessment methods and Criteria
Final grades are registered by the teacher of Dietetic Products, after passing the three module exams (for all three modules a minimum grade of 18 must be obtained). The average of the three modules is weighted on the basis of the number of CFU.

For the Dietary Products module, the exams are organized as follows:
- once a year (June) there is the possibility to take the written exam based on 40 questions (2 open questions and the remaining as multiple choice). The duration of the test is 90 minutes. Open questions are evaluated from 0 to 3 points in relation to their completeness; for multiple choice questions, one point is obtained for each correct question, 0 for unanswered questions and -0.3 for each wrong question. The final mark obtained (x/44) is transformed into x/30. The results are published in Ariel using the students' identification number. The written exam is mainly offered to the attending students but is open to all those who have passed the preparatory courses.
- at least 7 oral exam sessions are guaranteed for students of the academic year during the teaching break periods
- extra exams are opened for off-course or repeating students and are also placed in periods other than the teaching break.
- Other registration sessions are opened for those students who have passed the three modules.

For the module of Pharmacological Activities of Food Components the exams consist of a written test, lasting 45 minutes, consisting of 30 multiple choice questions. A score of 1 will be given for each correct answer, 0 for those not given and -0.2 for wrong answers. The test is considered passed with a score of 18.

For the Nutrition Physiology module the exam consists of a 60-minute written test consisting of 15 true/false questions and three open questions. Each correct true/false answer is worth 0.3 points and each open question will be evaluated from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 8.5 points.
Dietetic products
Course syllabus
DETAILED PROGRAM (16 lessons of 2 hours each, for a total of 32 hours)
1. Introduction
2. General aspects on nutrients: pyramids and food classes
3. Breastfeeding: characteristics of breast milk and cow's/goat's milk
4. Products for breastfeeding and growth. Classification of commercial cow's milk products
5. Formulas for preterm babies and for special dietetic needs
6. Weaning - Scientific basis and market products
7. Special diets and associated deficiencies (vegetarian, vegan, etc.). Diet and COVID
8. Toxic and non-toxic reactions to food; Cow's milk allergy - Scientific basis and products. Use of self-injecting adrenaline
9. Celiac disease - Pathogenesis and gluten-free products
10. Food intolerances - classification, disorders involving amino acids and related products
11. Intolerance to carbohydrates - galactosemia and lactose intolerance, relative products
12. Lipid intolerances - description and treatments. Hypertriglyceridemias (use of DHA and EPA). Hypercholesterolemia (Soy proteins, Phytosterols and red rice). Classification of commercial products based on olive oil. Other pathologies: Favism, cystic fibrosis
13. Functional products: description and examples (probiotic products, fiber and prebiotic products, active peptides, other examples)
14. Vitamin/mineral food supplements: general aspects, cases of real usefulness and safety problems (LARN tables, upper level, antioxidant vitamins)
15. Plant-based food supplements: health effects and adverse events
16. Food supplements for sport
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom through the use of slides and IT tools
Teaching Resources
In addition to the slides and documents on the Ariel platform, it is possible to use as a reference text:

PRODOTTI DIETETICI - Edizione PICCIN Nuova Libraria
Nutrition Pharmacology
Course syllabus
DETAILED PROGRAM (12 lessons of 2 hours each, for a total of 24 hours)
· Introduction to the course. nutraceuticals and functional foods.
· Claims on functional foods: regulations in USA and Europe.
· Food components with antioxidant activity.
· Formation, role and effects of free radicals. Endogenous antioxidants. Alterations of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms in some diseases.
· Exogenous antioxidants in foods. Polyphenols: effects and mechanism of action.
· Examples of fruits and vegetables containing polyphenols: red fruits, strawberry and blueberry. In vitro evidence and clinical studies.
· Active components of chili peppers, other spices and herbs.
· Carotenoids and vitamins.
· Introduction to microbiota: how can we modify it to improve our health and prevent diseases? (first part).
· Microbiota (second part). Clinical cases characterized by microbiota alterations. Treatment opportunity.
· Camelia sinensis: description, active constituents with pharmacological properties.
· Camelia sinensis: in vitro evidence and clinical studies on the healthy benefits of tea.
· Cocoa and chocolate.
· Lipids in foods.
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom through the use of slides and IT tools
Teaching Resources
The slides used during the lessons are available on the Ariel platform
Nutrition Physiology
Course syllabus
DETAILED PROGRAM (12 lessons of 2 hours each, for a total of 24 hours)

The course will cover the following topics:
- general nutrition concepts;
- functions of the digestive system;
- nervous and hormonal mechanisms of control of digestive function;
- dietary carbohydrates (food distribution, digestion and absorption, role in the organism and recommended dietary intake);
- dietary fiber;
- dietary proteins (essential aa, distribution in food, digestion and absorption of proteins, role in the organism and recommended dietary intake);
- dietary lipids (essential fatty acids, distribution in foods, digestion and absorption of lipids, role in the body and and recommended dietary intake);
- water (body content, distribution and functions);
- nutritional needs in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly;
- central and peripheral control mechanisms of food intake.
Teaching methods
The lessons are held in the classroom through the use of slides and IT tools
Teaching Resources
The slides of the lessons on the Ariel platform of the module and any text of Physiology for the study of the digestive system.
Dietetic products
CHIM/10 - FOOD CHEMISTRY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Restani Patrizia
Nutrition Pharmacology
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Fumagalli Marta
Nutrition Physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Please, send an email to schedule an appointment
Office, second floor at the Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, via Balzaretti 9, Milan
Reception:
On appointment
Via Trentacoste 2 V piano 20134 Milano