Processing of agri-food products

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The objective is to provide:
- the basic knowledge of the role of microorganisms in food processing
- specific skills for understanding the chemical, physical and biochemical phenomena involved in dairy processing and oenology.
Expected learning outcomes
Learning outcomes are:
- fundamental knowledge regarding dairy and oenological microbiology,
- skills for evaluating and managing some problems related to the processing of milk, grape and related derived products
- capability to identify the most relevant factors to improve the quality of milk and dairy products and wine
- ability to choice and to manage the processing steps that influence the quality of the final products in the mountain areas.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic years 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health.
Course syllabus
MILK - Milk chemistry and microbiology - Factors affecting milk production and composition. Physical properties (acid-base equilibria, density, viscosity, freezing point). Functionality and structure of the most important components of milk (lactose, fat, caseins, whey proteins, enzymes and minerals) and their roles in dairy products. The effects of processing on the structure and functionality of milk
constituents. Important micro-organisms in milk and dairy products and factors affecting their reproduction and survival. Control of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms during production and storage of dairy products. Dairy technology Consumption milk - Destruction of micro-organisms by heat treatment: thermisation, pasteurisation and sterilisation processes. Removal of micro-organisms by means of membrane filtration technologies. Cultured milk - Manufacture technology
of yogurt and cultured milks. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria. Cultured milk as functional foods.Butter - Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the different types of cream. Industrial buttermaking processes. Technologies for production of anhydrous milk fat. Milk powders - Technologies for manufacture of milk powders. Powder agglomeration. Types and quality characteristics of milk powder. Cheese - Analysis of the cheesemaking steps including type of
milk, rennet, cheese starters, processing within the vat and processing post-vat. Technologies for manufacture of different Italian cheeses and processed cheese. Physical and biochemical phenomena occurring during ripening.Quality control of dairy products including quality standards provided by
either EU specifications or government regulations. WINE - Composition of grapes; changes of main grape components during maturation and the importance thereof for the fermentation process and wine quality. Criteria for determining harvest readiness. Grape and exogenous enzymes. Glycosidasic
enzymes. Phenolic substances: anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines, tannins. Polimerization and stabilization of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The harvesting and handling of grapes, must
and skins before, during and after fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of grape and wine yeasts. Yeast oenological characteristics and condition for yeasts development. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts. Microbial spoilage of wines and applied
aspects of moulds and lactic acid bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in must and wine treatment. Products and methods complementing the effect of sulphur dioxide. Principles of winemaking including schemes of grape processing and special demands in individual technological practices: white, red, rose and sparkling wines, special wines and wines of special quality. Fining agents use optimization. Protein, tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal stability Principles and techniques for physicochemical and microbiological stabilization of wine. Enzymes in
winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel ageing.
Prerequisites for admission
Animal Biology, Physics, Inorganic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry) and Biochemistry
Teaching methods
AGR/15 - SCIENZE E TECNOLOGIE ALIMENTARI - University credits: 7
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: De Noni Ivano
Teaching Resources
Slides of lectures available at
Suggested books:
1.C. ALAIS., Scienza del latte. Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 2000.
2.C. Corradini, Chimica e tecnologia del latte, Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 1995.
3. Ribereau-Gayon P et al.. Trattato di Enologia vol. 1 e 2. Edagricole, Bologna.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The in-presence exam consists of a written test of 30 questions each with 4 closed answers. The exam will last 45 minutes. In case of a new COVID emergency, the exam will be written or oral and it will be held using the Teams platform. It will last about 30-45 minutes and, if oral, it must be taken only by appointment to be requested by email.
In order to take advantage of the facilities provided for the exam, DSA students must first notify the Office ( of their situation. Students enrolled in an examination call and who no longer wish to take the exam are required to promptly inform the teacher. The examination method is considered effective for achieving an assessment of skills acquired by the student taking into account the topics covered in the lectures.
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 7
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: De Noni Ivano
By appointment
Sezione Industrie Agrarie - DiSTAM