Raw materials and technologies in chocolate and confectionery industries

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the chemical-physical and technological concepts that enable them to tackle the problems of sweet products production and the development of new products with competence.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the students will be able to manage the processing technologies to obtain the main confectionery products and the factors that affect their quality.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Teaching methods: lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and it will be possible to follow them both in synchronously based on the timetable, and asynchronously since the lessons will be recorded and left available to students on the Ariel platform. Some lessons may be held in person, however, guaranteeing the synchronous mode for students who will not have the opportunity to reach the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences. The face-to-face lessons will aim to encourage interaction with students, for further information and clarifications.
The program and the reference material will not change.
The exam will take place in oral form using the Microsoft Teams platform or, where the regulation allows, in the presence, always in oral form.
Course syllabus
Recall of fundamental conceps (moisture, water activity, isotherms, rheology etc.). Main raw materials involved in the sector and their technological properties. SUGAR&CONFECTIONERY. Sugar industry. Sugar properties. Corn syrup: process and properties. Candies (hard candies, toffees, fudges, gummies, gelatins, fondant, tablets, licorice, dragée...): product definition, raw material specifications, operative conditions. The sugar-free sector: sugar substitutes, regulations, applications.
COCOA&CHOCOLATE. Sector and market description. Regulations and product definitions. Cocoa varieties, cultivation and practices. Bean composition and quality. Cocoa processing and technology; process and factors influencing the quality. Chocolate manufacturing processes. Chocolate quality and defects. Milk crumb technology. Flavor development during processing.
FRUIT&DERIVATIVES. Fruits in syrups, candied fruits, jams, marmalades etc.: regulations and product definitions, operative conditions, quality and defects.
HONEY. Regulations and product definitions, process, quality and defects.
OTHER PRODUCTS: ready to eat breakfast cereals, granola bars, 'torrone', 'croccante', etc.
Prerequisites for admission
Students must be familiar with the main unit operation of food technology.
Teaching methods
Lectures. Seminars held by experts from industry and/or academia. Technical visits. In accordance with teachers, planned seminars will be carried out by the students.
Teaching Resources
Slides provided by teachers, book chapters and scientific papers available on the ARIEL platform (https://ariel.unimi.it).
Assessment methods and Criteria
he evaluation, based on knowledge, understanding, and critical thinking of the topics, will consist of an oral discussion. Part of the final grade (up to 3/30) is related to the personal contribution to a project such as a short oral presentation or the discussion of a scientific paper regarding the topics debated during the lessons.
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 6
Field activity: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
upon appointment
Settore Didattico Colombo, Via Mangiagalli, 25; IV floor, room n. 4058
on appointment
settore didattico Colombo; IV floor