Training course 12: Veterinary Oncology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
VET/03 VET/05 VET/06 VET/08 VET/09 VET/10
Learning objectives
The course introduces the principles of analytical accounting that can be applied by future veterinary doctors to evaluate the organizational and economic performance of small businesses with particular focus on the veterinary clinic.
The theory of cost-revenue analysis will be studied with application to alternative investment choices based on profit forecasts. The main definitions of costs types will be presented and the basic techniques for differential analysis and the estimation of the unit contribution margin.
Expected learning outcomes
Students should be able to adequately approach patients with cancers and their owners, know the main diagnostic techniques for a proper clinical diagnosis and the adequate sampling techniques, interpret laboratory reports and define an adequate therapeutic iter.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Prerequisites for admission
To attend the elective course, the student must have passed all the exams of the third year and he must have attended the courses of the first semester of the 5th year.
Fundamentals of General and Gross Patholog, Histopathology and Medical/Surgical Pathology are required for the elective course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Learning will be assessed during all the practical activities of the course. Clinical rotation and modules of elective activity contribute in a different way to the definition of the final mark.
In clinical rotation, assessment of skills will be carried out in itinere by each teacher during clinical and diagnostic practical activities. Each specific practical competence carried out by the student will be attested through the electronic logbook by the teacher in whose presence this will be carried out. The regular frequency of activities and the acquisition of skills that the student will have to learn and possess at the end of the activity will result in an "approved" assessment.
At the end of the course, for the elective modules of the course a written exam with open and multiple choices questions will be administered to check the final learning. Also the active parecipation to lectures and practical sessions could be considered in the final score evaluation.
Clinical Rotation
Course syllabus
In the document of the Day one competences (DOCs), drawn up by the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, there is a list of knowledge and skills that the new graduate must possess. The electronic logbook lists the practical skills that the student must acquire to satisfy what is reported in the DOCs document. The hospital rotation is aimed at making the student acquire the skills and competences shown in the electronic logbook which from time to time it will be appropriate to apply on patients and case studies assigned.
Teaching methods
Practical work on referred for visit and hospitalized patients and on biological material provided for diagnostic purposes at the Teaching Veterinary Hospital. The work will be carried out by the students individually or in groups under the direct guidance of the teachers. All students will carry out activities in the Companion Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital, in the Ruminant and Swine Clinic, in Equine Clinic and in the facilities of the diagnostic services.
Teaching Resources
No specific reference material is foreseen. In relation to the activities carried out from time to time, students may be asked to research and discuss scientific literature on specific cases observed.
General and oncological cytology
Course syllabus
-General rules in diagnostic cytology
The cytologic sample: how to prepare and read it
Common lesions of skin
Common lesions of lymph node
Abdominal and thoracic fluids
Cytology lesions from various sites
Teaching methods
-Microscopic evaluation of cytology samples
Teaching Resources
-Basic concept in .pdf files given at the beginning of the course.
Cytologic samples to evaluate independently at the microscope.
Surgical and clinical oncology
Course syllabus
The module consists of 16 practice hours. Absolute priority will be given to the direct management of clinical cases of oncological surgery, reserving from 2 to 4 hours for the discussion of clinical cases and scientific literature.

The program will provide for the management of clinical cases of medical and surgical oncologicy that spontaneously refer to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital as follows:

a) Consultation rooms ((under supervision of clinical/academic staff)
First opinion vs specialized consultation vs postoperative recheck

- Recording of the patient
- Clinical History collection ( discussion)
- Physical examination vs specialized examination ( discussion)
- Proposal of differential diagnosis ( discussion)
- Discussion with clinical staff on the decisional algorithm for diagnostic procedures
- Follow the patient in the diagnostic procedures( X-rays, ultrasonography endoscopy etc..)
- provide a diagnosis, adequate treatment and prognosis
- Write the clinical report and drug prescription ( if needed)

b) Surgical theatre (under supervision of clinical/academic staff)

- Recording the patient
- Clinical History collection ( Discussion)
- Clinical examination for surgical treatment and anesthesiology protocol ( Discussion)
- Explanation of surgical treatment and anesthesiology protocol and possible complications ( Discussion)
- Cooperation in the owner consent taking for surgical treatment and anesthesiology protocol
- Discussion of the surgical treatment/technique, postoperative care and potential complications
- Discussion anesthesiologic and analgesic protocol based on surgical treatment plus postoperative analgesic protocol
- Preoperative- procedures for patient:
Preparation of the surgical site involves a series of steps such as clipping of hair, removal of dirt and oils, and removal of microbes.
- Preoperative procedures- surgical staff
Scrubs, scrubs hands and applications of specific surgical dress

- Preparation of the surgical site
- Assistant at surgical procedures/ performing some surgical procedures
- Planning postoperative care and communication with hospitalization service
- Follow/ recheck the patient in hospitalization service
- Write the surgical report
- Write the form for histopathologic exam ( surgical biopsy)
- Discussion with clinical staff of the surgical case/ cases.
- Write the clinical report and drug prescription ( if needed)
Teaching methods
The didactic activities will take place mainly in hospital (visits and operating room, hospitalization) for the direct management of clinical cases medical and surgical with moments dedicated to the discussion of clinical cases and with theoretical insights, making use of discussion and presentations of published scientific articles
Teaching Resources
1. PDF of the teacher's presentations
2. Withrow and Macewen's Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 2013 Elsevier ISBN 978-1-4377-2362-5
3. Small Animal Surgery 5th Edition; Theresa Fossum Hardcover ISBN: 9780323443449
Imprint: MosbyPublished Date: 29th May 2018 Page Count: 1584
Hemathologic tumors
Course syllabus
Bone marrow examination (2 h lectures + 2 h practical)
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping (4 h practical)
Canine and feline lymphoma (2 h lectures + 2 h practical)
Acute leukemias in cats and dogs (1 h lectures + 1 h practical)
Cronic leukemias in cats and dogs (1 h lectures + 1 h practical)
Teaching methods
The course consists in a small number of lectures, followed by a robust practical part in the clinical pathology lab and at the microscope.
Teaching Resources
Projected slidea and several articles on the topic will be provided
Diagnostic immunohistochemistry in oncology
Course syllabus
In the course will be described and discussed the immunohistochemical methods and the most important diagnostic and prognostic markers used in veterinary oncology (4 - 6 hours). Histologic and immunohistochemically stained slides of the most frequent and important animal tumors will be observed with a multi-head discussion microscope (6 - 8 hours). The students, supervised by the professor, shall perform an immunohistochemical test to characterize neoplastic samples with some of the most frequently used diagnostic markers (4 hours).
Teaching methods
Seminars and reading and discussion of relevant scientific publications, observation and discussion of histological and immunohistochemical preparations under a multi-station microscope of histological and immunohistochemical preparations, practical laboratory performance of an immunohistochemical test.
Teaching Resources
The reference teaching material, in the form of pdf files of the Power Point presentations used in the seminar activities, will be provided to the students at the moment. A list of scientific papers will also be proposed to investigate specific topics of the program.
Clinical Rotation
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 0
VET/08 - VETERINARY CLINICAL MEDICINE - University credits: 0
VET/09 - VETERINARY CLINICAL SURGERY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 64 hours
Diagnostic immunohistochemistry in oncology
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Practicals: 16 hours
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
General and oncological cytology
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Practicals: 16 hours
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Hemathologic tumors
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Practicals: 16 hours
Professor: Comazzi Stefano
Surgical and clinical oncology
VET/09 - VETERINARY CLINICAL SURGERY - University credits: 1
Practicals: 16 hours
Professor: Stefanello Damiano
Mon-Fry. Appointment needed (
Reparto di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria - Ospedale Veterinario Universitario, Edificio 9 - Via dell'Università 6 - 26900 Lodi
from Monday to Friday, on request
10 a.m. - 11,30 am. Every Wednesday
Ufficio-Settore didattico Palazzina Studi, I°piano, Lodi (Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria)
Monday to Friday, by appointment
Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria - Lodi