The course aims to provide students with the knowledge related to the parameters useful to characterize wine, beer and some distillates. The course aims to make students competent in the management of alcoholic beverage production processes.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the students will know how to know about the production technologies of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer, spirits, etc.) starting from the raw materials passing through the process parameters up to knowing how to identify the factors that condition the quality of the products finished.
WINE - Economic indicators and legislation. Composition of grapes; changes of main grape components during maturation and the importance thereof for the fermentation process and wine quality. Criteria for determining harvest readiness. Grape and exogenous enzymes. Aromatic compounds: terpenic fraction, methoxypyrazines, sulphur compounds, norisoprenoic compounds. Glycosidasic enzymes. Phenolic substances: anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines, tannins. Polimerization and stabilization of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The harvesting and handling of grapes, must and skins before, during and after fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of grape and wine yeasts. Yeast oenological characteristics and condition for yeasts development. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts. Microbial spoilage of wines and applied aspects of moulds and lactic acid bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in must and wine treatment. Products and methods complementing the effect of sulphur dioxide. Principles of winemaking including schemes of grape processing and special demands in individual technological practices: white, red, rose and sparkling wines, special wines and wines of special quality. Fining agents use optimization. Protein, tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal stability Principles and techniques for physicochemical and microbiological stabilization of wine. Enzymes in winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel ageing. Quality control and product specifications. Sensory evaluation of wines. BEER- Economic indicators and legislation. Raw materials used in brewing. Structure of the barley grain. Enzymic modification and biochemical changes occurring during germination. Characteristics and production of the main classes of malts used in brewing. Milling of malt and wort production (mashing). Water quality (source, ionic composition, treatments). Principal mashing methods and mashing biochemistry (starch conversion, proteolysis..). Hops: processing and forms used in brewing, specifications and introductory hop chemistry. Wort boiling, clarification and cooling. Brewing yeast management and fermentation. Brewing yeast taxonomy and biochemistry. Biological and chemical processes that contribute to the maturation of beer. Formation of non-biological hazes and stabilisation against non-biological haze. Clarification and filtration. Bottling. Sensory analysis of beer. DISTILLED BEVERAGES - Distillation principles. The properties of ethanol-water mixture. Batch and continuous distillation. Processing of grappa, Cognac, brandy, whisky, rum, gin and vodka.
Prerequisites for admission
Inorganic and organic chemistry, Biochemistry, Microbiology.
The course is organized in classroom lectures, using methods audiovisual, for all the subjects indicated in the course programme.
Slides of lectures available at https://ariel.unimi.it. Suggested books: Ribereau-Gayon P et al.. Trattato di Enologia vol. 1 e 2. Edagricole, Bologna. George J. Fix. Principles of Brewing Science: A Study of Serious Brewing Issues (Inglese). Ed. Brewers publications"
Assessment methods and Criteria
The examination consists of a written test aimed at ascertaining the student's knowledge of the theoretical and applicative aspects of beer technology and distillates. The written test consists of about 30 closed-ended questions. In order to take advantage of the facilities provided for the exam, DSA students must first notify the Office (www.unimi.it/studenti/serviziodisabiliedsa.htm) of their situation. Students enrolled in an examination call and who no longer wish to take the exam are required to promptly inform the teacher. In the event of non-compliance, they will not be able to present themselves at the next appeal. The examination method is considered effective for achieving an assessment of skills acquired by the student in the context of the technologies of alcoholic beverages taking into account the topics covered in the lectures.