Human Anatomy

A.Y. 2019/2020
18
Max ECTS
228
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/16
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
· Illustrate the organization of the human body from both the macroscopic and the microscopic levels, together with the main ontogenetic events characterizing its development.
· Integrate the knowledge of systematic and regional anatomy focusing on medical practice (functional, clinical and radiologic anatomy).
· Possess sufficient anatomical information to proficiently attend the subsequent courses.
Expected learning outcomes
· Knowledge and understanding: the student should show a deep knowledge and a detailed understanding of the organization of the human body, with sufficient information to proficiently attend the subsequent Courses. The student should be able to consult anatomical textbooks and atlases, and should know the main current research fields of Human Anatomy.
· Applying knowledge and understanding: the student should be able to identify human organs according to their macroscopic characteristics and position, alongside with their microscopic structure.
· Making judgements: the student should be able to use the anatomical information learned during the Course to make independent judgements about the morphological normality of human organs.
· Communication skills: the student should be able to communicate the information about the organization of the human body efficaciously and with the appropriate terms.
· Learning skills: the student should demonstrate to possess the necessary learning skills to autonomously deepen and update the anatomical information.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Course syllabus
A. GENERAL ANATOMY
- general principles of body organization according to: a) a systemic approach (systems and organs: definition and structure) and b) a topographical approach (division into parts of the human body, their external examination: reference surface lines; their internal examination: body spaces);
- anatomical terminology: terms of position and movement.

B. SYSTEMIC, TOPOGRAPHICAL AND CLINICAL ANATOMY
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
1. GENERAL NOTIONS
- general characteristics of the bones: morphology, classification, terminology, structure, vascularization, innervation, development and growth;
- general characteristics of the joints: classification and structure of synarthrosis and diarthrosis, axes of movement;
- general characteristics of the skeletal muscles: morphology, classification, terminology, structure, vascularization, innervation, accessory organs of the muscles.
2. SYSTEMIC ANATOMY
HEAD
- general morphological characteristics of the bones and detailed description of the skull as a whole, with particular reference to the endocranial and extracranial fossae;
- temporomandibular joint;
- general morphological and functional characteristics of the mimic and masticatory muscles;
- limits and general organization of the head.
TRUNK
Back
- general morphological characteristics of the vertebrae;
- general characteristics of the joints and ligaments;
- general morphological and functional characteristics of the dorsal and ventral muscles and the fasciae;
- functional anatomy of the spine with particular reference to physiological curvatures.
Neck
- detailed description of the anterior and lateral muscles of the neck and cervical fasciae;
- limits, general organization and main regions of the neck.
Thorax
- general morphological characteristics of the ribs and the sternum;
- general characteristics of the costovertebral and sternocostal joints;
- general morphological characteristics of all the muscles of the chest and detailed description of the main muscles;
- functional anatomy of the rib cage;
- limits and general organization of the chest.
Abdomen
- detailed description of the main muscles, fasciae and inguinal canal;
- limits and general organization of the abdomen.
UPPER LIMB AND LOWER LIMB
- general morphological characteristics of the bones;
- general morphological and functional characteristics of all the joints; detailed description of the main joints and their ligaments;
- general morphological and functional characteristics of all muscle groups of the limbs; detailed description of the main muscles and fasciae;
- lacuna musculorum, femoral ring (lacuna vasorum), femoral triangle and adductor canal.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- main characteristics of the skin: layers and structure, skin appendages, vascularization and innervation.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
1. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- structure of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries;
- functional significance of the collateral branches, terminal branches, vascular territory, terminal arteries, anastomoses and collateral circulation;
- main characteristics of fetal circulation and changes at birth.
HEART
- morphology, location, spatial orientation, external and internal configuration, functional morphology of the ventricles and heart valves, anatomical relationships and thoraco-cardiac topography, structure, cardiac conduction system, vascularization and innervation;
- main stages of the development of the heart and pericardium.
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
- pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries and veins.
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION: ARTERIES AND VEINS
- main arteries and veins: origin, pathway, main anatomical relationships, vascular territory, main collateral branches with relative vascular territory and terminal branches with relative vascular territory.
DISTRICT CIRCULATION
- intracranial and extracranial arterial and venous circulation, circle of Willis and dura venous sinuses;
- arterial and venous parietal circulation of the trunk (neck, thorax, abdomen);
- arterial, deep venous and superficial venous circulation of the upper limb;
- arterial, deep venous and superficial venous circulation of the lower limb;
- vascularization of the viscera of the trunk (neck, thorax, abdomen).
2. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- main structural characteristics of the lymphatic vessels;
- main collectors and main lymph node stations;
- lymphoid and hematopoietic organs (described as reported below for viscera): lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils.

VISCERAL SYSTEMS
Description of all viscera as follows:
1) general morphology and organoleptic properties;
2) location, spatial orientation, position and anatomical relationships, fixity means and projections;
3) structure;
4) ultrastructure of:
- pulmonary alveolus (pneumocytes and blood-air barrier);
- nephron (renal corpuscle and blood-urine barrier);
- liver (hepatocyte, bile capillary, space of Disse);
- lining epithelium of the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli);
5) vascularization;
6) innervation;
7) morphofunctional aspects.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs and spaces: mouth (division in parts and limits, lips, cheeks, palate, floor, gums, teeth: number and main morphological and structural characteristics, dentitions, tongue), major salivary glands, parotid space, oropharyngeal isthmus, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, biliary system, pancreas;
- peritoneum: division of the peritoneal cavity, mesenteries (transverse mesocolon, mesentery, mesosigmoid, mesoappendix), supramesocolic and submesocolic spaces, lesser omentum, greater omentum, lesser peritoneal sac (omental bursa), splenic space, pelvic peritoneum, structure;
- main stages of the development of the digestive system.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs and structures: external nose, nasal and paranasal cavities, larynx, trachea and bronchi, lung;
- pleura;
- main stages of the development of the respiratory system.
URINARY SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs: kidney, calices and renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, male and female urethra;
- main stages of the development of the urinary system.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs and structures: testis, tubuli recti and rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, spermatic cord, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, prostate, external genitalia (hints);
- main stages of the development of the male reproductive system.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia (hints);
- main stages of the development of the female reproductive system.
PERINEUM
- pelvic diaphragm, external anal sphincter, urogenital diaphragm.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
- structural plan;
- morphological characteristics of the following organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreatic islets, adrenal glands, diffuse endocrine system.

NERVOUS SYSTEM
- structural plan: division into parts, neuron theory, nervous circuits;
- main stages of development of the nervous system;
- macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics of the following organs and structures of the central nervous system: spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, quadrigeminal lamina, diencephalon, telencephalon, meninges and ventricular cavities;
- vascularization of the central nervous system;
- anatomical bases of the main pathways and circuits: sensory pathways, motor pathways and their control mechanisms;
- macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics of the following structures of the peripheral nervous system: spinal and encephalic nerves (origin, pathway, main branches and territory of innervation), autonomic nervous system, special senses: visual system, hearing and vestibular systems, anatomical bases of taste and smell.
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific pre-requirements for the Human Anatomy course.
Teaching methods
- Lectures
- Tutorial activities with human organs and models of human organs
- Tutorial activities at the light microscope
- Seminars
Teaching Resources
TESTI CONSIGLIATI
Anatomia sistematica
- Anastasi e altri, Trattato di Anatomia Umana, EdiErmes
Anatomia clinica
- Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice - Churchill Livingston - Elsevier
- Moore e Dalley, Anatomia Umana con riferimenti clinici, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Anatomia microscopica
- Wheater, Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica, Elsevier Masson

ATLANTI
- Anastasi e Tacchetti (eds), Anatomia Umana - Atlante (vol. 1-2-3), EdiErmes
- Gilroy e altri, Atlante di Anatomia - Prometheus, EdiSES
- Netter, Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Elsevier
- Kopf Mayer, Atlante di Anatomia Umana, EdiErmes
- Rohen e altri, Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Piccin
- Farina, Atlante di Anatomia Umana descrittiva, Piccin

TESTI DI CONSULTAZIONE E APPROFONDIMENTO
Anatomia topografica
- Barajon e altri, Anatomia Topografica, EdiErmes
Neuroanatomia
- Dockery e altri, FitzGerald. Neuroanatomia con riferimenti funzionali e clinici, Edra
Dissezione
- Gibelli, Appunti di dissezione anatomica, EdiSES
Organogenesi
- Barbieri e Carinci, Embriologia, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
- Langman's Medical Embryology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
- Moore, Persaud. The developing human. Clinically oriented embryology, Saunders, Elsevier
- Schoenwolf e altri, Larsen's Human Embryology, Elsevier
Assessment methods and Criteria
Assessment methods: multiple question choice tests and oral assessment, slide description and diagnosis at the light microscope.
1. First semester: at the end of the first semester the student will be evaluated on topics covered through a multiple choice question test (MCQT; 40 questions, each with 5 possible independent answers, -each could be true/ false). This assessment is an intermediate test and is not mandatory.
2. Second semester: approximately in the middle of the second semester, as well as at its end, two MCQTS will be performed on the topics covered. These assessments are intermediate tests and are not mandatory.
At the end of the tutorial activities on microscopic anatomy, the student will be evaluated for her/ his ability to describe and recognize an organ through its examination at the light microscope (slide diagnosis).
3. Oral exam (SIFA registration is mandatory):
a) the student who have successfully passed the three intermediate tests and the slide diagnosis will be admitted to the oral exam. Slide diagnosis will be always valid; the three MCQTS will be valid for two oral examinations throughout the entire academic year.
b) Alternatively, the student will be admitted to the oral exam after having passed a single MCQT covering the whole program and the slide diagnosis, which will be scheduled before each oral exam session.
In case of failure of the oral exam, the test will be kept valid through the session (summer, fall or winter session).
Evaluation criteria:
1. Slide diagnosis: a PASS/ FAILED information will be given.
2. MCQT: the number of completely correct questions (out of 40) and the number of errors made in the incorrect questions (out of 200) will be given. The first value informs about the amount of topics with a complete preparation, the second value informs about the level of preparation in the topics with a partial preparation. The sufficiency level is obtained by not less than 18 completely correct questions and no more than 44 errors in the incorrect questions.
3. Mark: the final mark will be obtained according to the performance of the oral examination. The exam is deemed to be passed successfully if the final grade is equal to or higher than 18/30. In the event of a full grade (30/30) honors (lode) may be granted.
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 18
Informal teaching: 48 hours
Lessons: 180 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
on appointment (please send an e-mail message)
Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31 - Milano
Reception:
By appointment via e-mail
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, V. Mangiagalli, 31 - Milan
Reception:
appointment by e-mail
Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31 - Milano