Human body

A.Y. 2020/2021
19
Max ECTS
248
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/16 BIO/17
Language
English
Learning objectives
The course addresses the organization of the human body from the cellular and tissue level to the organ/system level, including how this organization comes into being during development.
The systematic and topographic approaches are integrated in light of the clinical practice. The course provides the comprehensive fundamental background to understand the functions and pathologies of the different organs and systems. Some specific contents are provided in other integrated courses of the curriculum (cytology in Cells, molecules and genes I, part of Neuroanatomy and of Anatomy of the Head and Neck in Functions, Head and Neck and Neurobiology, human behaviour and clinical neuroscience) "Functional drops" are introduced in the lectures to exemplify the relationships between morphology and its functional correlates. "Diagnostic and Clinical drops" are introduced in the lectures to exemplify how disruption of normal development and structure leads to pathology, so to underline the relevance of anatomy in clinical practice.
Expected learning outcomes
Students are expected to be able to:
-Describe cells, cell ultrastructure, and tissues and their functional aspects in relation to the morphological organization.
-Describe gametogenesis, fertilization, the early stages of embryonic development, and the key mechanisms leading to organogenesis.
-Illustrate the main morphological events and the relevant related molecular aspects characterizing the development of the body and its various organ systems in order to acquire the vision of the adult anatomy through a dynamic developmental view and understand the basis of congenital defects
-Illustrate the structural principles underlying the functions of organs and systems
-Illustrate the general principles of the body plan at both the systematic (organs and systems) and the topographic levels (regions of the body and corresponding deep spaces)and systems).
- Possess sufficient anatomical information to proficiently attend the subsequent courses.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
For the lessons of the 1st semester the teaching, given the current health situation, will be carried out entirely at a distance.
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific pre-requirements for the Human Body course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Assessment methods: multiple question choice tests and oral assessment, slide diagnosis at the light microscope.
1. At the end of the first semester students will be evaluated through a multiple choice question test (MCQT; 40 questions, each with 5 possible independent answers, -each could be true/ false) and for their ability to describe and recognize histological preparations at the light microscope (histology, with tissue diagnosis; microanatomy, with organ diagnosis).
This assessment is an intermediate test and is NOT mandatory, it is a free possibility to test the personal work done during the first term (no SIFA registration).
2. A second MCQT will be performed at the end of the second semester (II semester topics).
This assessment is an intermediate test and is NOT mandatory, it is a free possibility to test the personal work done during the second term (no SIFA registration).
Students who have successfully passed both intermediate tests and both slide diagnoses will be admitted to the oral exam. Slide diagnoses will be always valid; the two multiple choice tests will be valid for two oral examinations throughout the entire academic year.
3. Before each oral exam session (after the end of the second term) it will be possible to take a single MCQT covering the whole program, as well as both slide diagnoses. In case of failure of the oral exam, the test will be kept valid through the session (summer, fall or winter session).
This is the OFFICIAL examination, SIFA registrations is mandatory.
4. Evaluation: for the slides, a PASS/ FAILED information will be given. For the MCQT, the number of completely correct questions (out of 40) and the number of errors made in the incorrect questions (out of 200) will be given. The first value informs about the amount of topics with a complete preparation, the second value informs about the level of preparation in the topics with a partial/ absent preparation. The sufficiency level is obtained by not less than 18 completely correct questions and no more than 32 errors in the incorrect questions.
5. Mark: the final mark will be obtained according to the performance of the oral examination. The mark will not be the average of the preliminary tests (slides, written MCQT), but their performance level may positively supplement the mark of the oral examination.
The exam is deemed to be passed successfully if the final grade is equal to or higher than 18/30. In the event of a full grade (30/30) honors (lode) may be granted.
Registration to exams through SIFA is mandatory for each session. Students do not need to register on SIFA for the intermediate multiple-choice tests.
Histology and embryology
Course syllabus
HISTOLOGY:
Lecture 1: Presentation of the course. Introduction to histology. From tissue sample collection to the observation at the microscope.
Lecture 2: Special topic: Instruments for morphological analysis and biomedical applications: not "simply" microscopes.
Lecture 3: Epithelia: apical and basolateral specializations of epithelial cells. Cell junctions.
Lecture 4: Lining epithelia: classification and localizations.
Lecture 5: Exocrine glands.
Lecture 6: Endocrine glands.
Lecture 7: Connective tissue: cellular components and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue.
Lecture 8: Connective tissue: proper connective tissue
Lecture 9: Specialized connective tissue: cartilage.
Lecture 10: Specialized connective tissue: bone and osteogenesis.
Lectures 11-12: Specialized connective tissue: blood and hemopoiesis.
Lectures 13-14: Muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues.
Lecture 15: Special topic: Tenocytes are ''superman-like'' cells in tendons.
Lectures 16-17-18: Nervous tissue
Lecture 19: Dental tissues: enamel, dentin, pulp, and periodontal tissues
Practical/Histology 1: lining epithelia
Practical/Histology 2: exocrine and endocrine glands
Practical/Histology 3: connective tissue
Practical/Histology 4: blood smear and lymphoid organs
Practical/Histology 5: muscle and nervous tissue
Practical/Histology 6: revision of all the tissues
Practical/Histology 7: interactive revision of all the tissues
GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY:
Lecture 1: Introduction. Male gametogenesis. Testes and cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. Introduction to genital ducts.
Lecture 2: Female gametogenesis. Ovary and uterus. Maturation of follicles and menstrual cycle
Lecture 3: Fertilization. Early stages of the embryo development. Segmentation. Morula. Blastocyst implantation
Lecture 4: 3rd week of embryo development
Lecture 5: Embryo annexes
ORGAN STRUCTURE AND SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT:
Lecture 1. Principles of organ architecture.
Lecture 2. Heart and pericardium.
Lecture 3. Structure of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
Lectures 4-5. Layout of the vascular system.
Lecture 6. Lymphoid organs (lymphnodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, MALT).
Lecture 7. Digestive system part I: overview of the oral cavity and of the pharynx; macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the esophagus and the stomach.
Lecture 8. Digestive system part II: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the small and large intestine.
Lectures 9-10. Digestive system part III: Macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the salivary glands, exocrine pancreas and liver.
Lecture 11. Lower respiratory tract: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure.
Lecture 12. Urinary system: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the kidney, ureters and lower urinary tract.
Lectures 13-14. Reproductive system: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the male and female reproductive system.
Lecture 15. The 4th week: establishing the body plan.
Lecture 16. Topic: Development of the cardiovascular system, fetal circulation, neonatal circulation.
Lecture 17. The primordial pharynx and the pharyngeal apparatus.
Lecture 18. Development of the lower respiratory tract.
Lectures 19-20. Development of the digestive system.
Lecture 21. Development of the urogenital system.
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 1: Digestive system: hollow organs
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 2: Digestive system: solid organs.
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 3: Respiratory and urinary system. Blood vessels.
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 4: Reproductive system and endocrine glands.
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 5: Revision of all organs.
Practical/Microscopic Anatomy 6: Interactive revision of all organs.
Small group activities: From the lab to the bedside: histological staining to understand tissue and organ structure modifications.
GENERAL ANATOMY
Lecture 1. From tissues to body: organs and systems. Anatomical nomenclature
Lecture 2. From outside to inside: topographical hints
Lecture 3. Intercommunication between the body and the environment (skin and its appendages).
Lecture 4. Bones: support, movement and protection.
Lecture 5. Joints: support and movement.
Lecture 6. Skeletal muscles: support, movement and protection.
Lectures 7-8-9. The skull: bones, fossae and general architecture.
Practical/General anatomy 1 and 2: The skull
REGIONAL ANATOMY
Lectures 1-2. Trunk: the back.
Lectures 3-4-5 Trunk: the thorax.
Lectures 6-7-8-9 Trunk: the abdomen and pelvis.
Lectures 10-11-12-13-14-15. Pectoral and pelvic girdles, upper and lower limb.
Practical/Regional anatomy 1 and 2: Trunk & the back.
Practical/Regional anatomy 3 and 4: Trunk: the thorax.
Practical/Regional anatomy 5 and 6: Trunk: the abdomen and pelvis.
Practical/Regional anatomy 7-8-9-10: Upper and lower limb.
NEUROANATOMY:
Lecture 1. Phylogenesis and general organization.
Lectures 2-3. Development of the nervous system.
Lecture 4: Spinal cord, spinal nerves.
Lecture 5. Peripheral nervous system: spinal plexuses.
Lecture 6. Peripheral nervous system: Autonomic nervous system.
Lectures 7-8-9. Brainstem and cerebellum.
Lectures 10-11-12.Telencephalon and diencephalon.
Practical/Neuroanatomy: macroscopic organization.
SEMINARS:
Anatomical bases of neuromuscular pathologies.
3D reconstruction of human movement.
Functional neuroanatomy.
People from Bones.
Clinical aspects of knee joint pathology.
Clinical aspects of shoulder joint pathology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Tutorial activities at the light microscope
· Tutorial activities with human organs and models of human organs
· Small groups activities in the histology laboratory
· Small group activities with human organs and models of human organs
· Seminars
Teaching Resources
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th Edition, 2010
· Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas. Barbara Churchill Livingstone, 2006
· Moore & Dalley Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
· Gray's Anatomy The Anatomical Basis Of Clinical Practice. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Langman's Medical Embryology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 12th Edition, 2011
· Larsen's Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Moore, Persaud, Torchia The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology.
Elsevier, 9th Edition, 2011
More recent editions can be used as well.
Anatomy
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Histology and Embryology.
Teaching methods
· Lectures
· Tutorial activities at the light microscope
· Tutorial activities with human organs and models of human organs
· Small group activities with human organs and models of human organs
· Seminars
Teaching Resources
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th Edition, 2010
· Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas. Barbara Churchill Livingstone, 2006
· Moore & Dalley Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
· Gray's Anatomy The Anatomical Basis Of Clinical Practice. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Langman's Medical Embryology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 12th Edition, 2011
· Larsen's Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Moore, Persaud, Torchia The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology.
Elsevier, 9th Edition, 2011
More recent editions can be used as well.
Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 12001
Practicals: 48 hours
Lessons: 120 hours
Histology and embryology
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Gagliano Nicoletta
Professor(s)
Reception:
By appointment via e-mail
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, V. Mangiagalli, 31 - Milan
Reception:
appointment by e-mail
Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31 - Milano
Reception:
Appointment via e-mail
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31, Milan