Fundamentals of nutrition and food science

A.Y. 2021/2022
12
Max ECTS
96
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/15 AGR/16 MED/49
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims at providing the basis of the principles of physiology that underlie the processes of digestion of the foods and absorption of nutrients; providing the main notions of macro and micronutrient functions, the role of non-nutrients in the human body and the nutritional characteristics of foods.
Part 2 aims at familiarizing with the main notions of food technology. In particular, biological, chemical and physical phenomena related to quality, stability and safety of food products are discussed, as well as major technologies and operations aimed at food transformation and preservation. The physical principles that govern operations involving heat transfer and dehydration of food are discussed. The course provides basic knowledge of food legislation related to food safety and the principles of HACCP systems.
In the third part, the course aims at providing the basics of general and food microbiology as useful foods tools to understand the role of microorganisms in food processing and preservation.
Part 1
The course aims at providing the basis of the principles of physiology that underlie the processes of digestion of the foods and absorption of nutrients.
Provide the main notions of macro and micronutrient functions, the role of non-nutrients in the human body and the nutritional characteristics of foods.
Part 2
Part 2 of the course aims at familiarizing with the main subjects of food technology. In particular, biological, chemical and physical phenomena related to quality, stability and safety of food products are discussed, as well as major technologies and operations aimed at food transformation and preservation. The physical principles that govern operations involving heat transfer and dehydration of food are discussed. The course provides basic knowledge of food legislation related to food safety and the principles of HACCP systems.
Part 3
In the third part the course aims at providing the basics of microbiology and food microbiology as useful foods tools to understand the role of microorganisms in food processing and food preservation.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to Know the role of the body composition, energy expenditure and the functioning of the digestive system on maintaining the health status. Understanding the role that nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and vitamins) play in the body's metabolic processes. The students will be able to know how to properly use food as a source of nutrients.
Students will acquire knowledge to evaluate and manage problems concerning quality, stability and safety of food products. They will be able to comprehend the effects of technological treatments applied to foods, particularly in terms of safety and nutritional characteristics. They will be able to critically evaluate thermal and dehydration treatments of food, and predict their effects on food quality. Students will be able to understand, implement and contribute to the design of food safety control systems in catering activities.
Students will be able to recognize the main sources of microbial contamination throughout the food chain and of the mechanisms of infection and intoxication and will be able to apply the basic principles for the prevention and control of microorganisms.
Part 1
At the end of the course, students will acquire skills related to the role of body composition, energy expenditure and the functioning of the digestive system on health status. They will be able to understand the role that nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and vitamins) play in the body and will be able to correctly use food as a source of nutrients.
Part 2
Students will acquire specific knowledge to evaluate and manage problems concerning quality, stability and safety of food products. They will be able to comprehend the effects of technological treatments applied to foods, particularly in terms of safety and nutritional characteristics. They will be able to critically evaluate thermal and dehydration treatments of food, and predict their effects on food quality. Students will be able to understand, implement and contribute to the design the system of food safety control in catering activities.
Part 3
At the end of the course the student will acquire the skills to know the main sources of microbial contamination along the food production and distribution chain and the mechanisms of infection and intoxication, will have the ability to apply the basic principles for the prevention and control of the presence of microorganisms.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Course syllabus
Part1:
Body composition, energy metabolism and main evaluation methods
· The human body and the digestive system
· Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the digestive system
· Food digestion and absorption mechanisms of nutrients obtained from digestion
· Water and its functions
· Nutritional role of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and dietary fiber
· Characteristics and nutritional role of vitamins and minerals
· Food groups and nutritional characteristics
· Levels of recommended nutrient intake and energy for the Italian population
· Principles of balanced diet
Part 2:
Introduction to food technologies: definitions, classifications. Main causes of food product instability: biological, enzymatic, chemical and physical factors. Food stabilization principles and technologies: stabilization heat treatments, meaning of the water activity parameter, treatments based on water removal, low temperatures.
Heat transport by conduction, convection and radiation: phenomenology of processes and significance in relation to the operations of food technology.
Food cooking: effects of treatments on food matrices; description of some cooking techniques (baking, microwave cooking, frying, vacuum cooking). Food freezing and freezing: technologies and effects on food matrices. The principles of self-control of hygiene: legislative and voluntary references, design and implementation methodologies.
Part 3:
Microorganisms: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (structure and chemical composition). Energy metabolism. Factors that influence microbial growth. Sanitizing principles and sources of microbial contamination in the food production and distribution process. Indicative microorganisms of typicality and quality. Pathogenic microorganisms and foodborne diseases. Microbiology of the main food products (milk and derivatives, cereals and derivatives, meat and derivatives, fruit and vegetable products, low aw products, beverages, eggs)
Prerequisites for admission
Have adequate knowledge of food components (general and organic chemistry), biological transformations that take place at the cellular and human organism level (general biology and applied biochemistry). Have basic information on the fundamentals of microbiology and food processing technology.
Teaching methods
Teachers will use as the main method of teaching asynchronous remote lessons together with different material available on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
Study material: Material provided by the teachers, available on the ARIEL platform
 
Recommended texts:
G Arienti - Le basi molecolari della Nutrizione (4 edizione) Piccin (Padova), 2016
BM Koeppen, BA Stanton - Berne & Levy Fisiologia (7 ed) CEA - (Milano) 2018
A Mariani Costantini, C. Cannella, G. Tomassi - Alimentazione e nutrizione umana - Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, (Roma), 2006
S Ciappellano - Manuale della Ristorazione - CEA - (Milano) 2009
P Cabras, A Martelli - Chimica degli alimenti, Piccin, 2004
R.P. Singh, D.R. Heldman - Principi di tecnologia alimentare - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2015.
C. Pompei - Operazioni unitarie della tecnologia alimentare- Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2009.
Brock. Biologia dei microrganismi vol.1 - Microbiologia generale - di Michael T. Madigan, John M. Martinko
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
MICROBIOLOGIA DEI PRODOTTI ALIMENTARI - a cura di GA Farris, M Gobbetti, E Neviani, M Vincenzini
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2012, Milano
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam will be written consisting of a test of the same format as that of the admission test. The dates of the tests are communicated through the on-line University application (UNIMIA). To take the exam students must register within the deadline set in UNIMIA. The evaluation is expressed by a mark out of thirty, which is communicated to each student by automated e-mail from the University.
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 0
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 0
MED/49 - FOOD AND DIETETIC SCIENCES - University credits: 0
Lessons: 96 hours