Human anatomy and anatomy of the masticatory apparatus

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Describe the features of the structures of the human body and their functional aspects in relation to the morphological organization and illustrate the general principles of the body plan at both the systematic (organs and systems) and the topographic level (regions of the body and corresponding deep spaces). Provide notions on the structural principles underlying the functions of organs and systems, in particular of the head and neck district and the masticatory apparatus.
Expected learning outcomes
Describe the organization of the human body at both macroscopic and microscopic levels in order to understand the functional aspects useful for the recognition of physiological and pathological conditions; integrate the systematic and topographic aspects of the anatomical structures with the clinical dental practice; possess sufficient anatomical knowledge in order to approach successfully the subsequent courses.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
I- HUMAN ANATOMY (general part)
Body scheme; anatomical terminology; spaces, cavities and body regions; organs, systems, apparata.

General information on the skin and skin appendages.

General information on bones, joints, muscles; axial and appendicular skeleton; joints of the human body; head, trunk and limb muscles.

- Definition, classification and structure of arteries, veins and capillaries.
- Heart: Morphology, site, orientation, external configuration, internal configuration, morphology of the ventricles and heart valves, thoracocardiac topography, structure, conduction system, vascularization and innervation.
- General and pulmonary circulation: arteries and veins (origin, course, main relationships, territory of distribution / drainage, main collateral branches with relative territory and terminal branches with relative territory); portal vein system.

- Definition and organic composition; definition and structure of lymphatic vessels; main lymphatic trunks
Lymphoid organs (Thymus, spleen, lymph node, tonsils)

- Systematic study of viscera:
· General morphology and organoleptic characteristics
· Situation, orientation, position and relationships, means of fixation and relative projections
· Structure
· Ultrastructure of:
- pulmonary alveolus (pneumocytes and air-blood barrier)
- nephron (renal corpuscle and blood-brain barrier)
- liver (hepatocyte, bile capillary, Disse space)
- epithelium lining the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli)
· Vascularization
· innervation
· Morpho-functional references.

· Nerve circuits. Morphology and general organization of the central nervous system.
· Afferences to the neurasse: pathways of general and special somatic sensitivity.
· Descending patways; motoneurons and motor control.
· Spinal Cord: external morphology and relationships; internal configuration; organization and connections of the gray and white substance
· Brainstem: external morphology and relationships; internal configuration; organization and connections of the gray and white substance
· Cerebellum: external morphology and relationships; internal configuration; organization and connections of the gray and white substance; phylogenesis
· Lamina quadrigemina: position, external morphology and relationships, role and connections
· Brain: external morphology and relationships; internal configuration; organization and connections of the gray and white substance of both diencephalon and telencephalon.
· Vascularization of the brain.
· Ventricular cavities of the brain, Meninges, cerebrospinal fluid.
· Nerve: definition, structure, fiber content; receptors.
· Spinal nerves: definition, constitution, site, course; metamerism; posterior and anterior branches of the spinal nerves; plexuses.
· Cranial nerves: fiber content, course and area of distribution of the encephalic nerves and their main branches.
· Sympathetic system: General organization; neurassial centers; peripheral organs: preganglionic and postganglionic fiber; sympathetic, parasympathetic.
Special sense organs:
taste, olfactory, visual, auditory and vestibular apparatus: general organization, structure, site and pathways.

II. Anatomy of the stomatognathic apparatus
- Morphology and architecture of the skull (bones, endo- and exocranial fossae)
- Masticatory muscles
- Temporo-mandibular joint
- Masticatory biomechanics
- Morphology and limits of the oral cavity
- Architecture and structure of tongue, pharynx and larynx
- Structure of the greater and lesser salivary glands
- Morphology of teeth and dental arches (macro and microscopic aspects)
- Morphogenesis of the face and oral cavity
- Morpho-functional aspects of the periodontium
- Vascularization and innervation of the head and neck
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required
Teaching methods
The course is mainly organized in lectures alternated with some practical exercises of macroscopic anatomy using plastic models of different sizes and shapes, extracted teeth and anatomical tables illustrating sections of the human body in the various projections to guide work in small groups.
Teaching Resources
Anatomia Generale/Human Anatomy
Uno dei seguenti testi da integrare con gli argomenti svolti a lezione:
Ambrosi et al. Anatomia Dell'Uomo. Edi.Ermes, Milano.
Anastasi et al. Anatomia Umana. Edi.Ermes, Milano.
Prometheus. Testo atlante di anatomia- testa, collo e neuroanatomia. EdiSES, Napoli.
Anatomia Speciale/Anatomy of the stomatognatic apparatus
Dellavia C. Compendio di Anatomia Oro-facciale per l'attività clinica odontostomatologica. 2016. EdiSES, Napoli.
Lloyd DuBrul E. Anatomia orale di Sicher. Edi.Ermes, Milano.
Fonzi L. Anatomia funzionale e clinica dello splancnocranio. Edi.Ermes, Milano.
Brizzi et al. Anatomia Topografica. Edi.Ermes, Milano. Estratto riservato per Odontoiatria
(esclusivamente Testa e Collo) dal volume.
Mjör IA, Fejerskov O. Embriologia e Istologia del cavo orale. Edi.Ermes.
Sadler TW. Embriologia Medica di Langman. Masson.
Dellavia C, Gagliano N, Orlando F. I colori e le forme della ricerca in odontoiatria. Atlante di istologia orale. Quintessenza Edizioni s.r.l., Rho (Mi) 2001.
Petra Kopf-Maier. Anatomia Umana. Atlante di Wolf-Heidegger. Edi.Ermes, Milano.
F.H. Netter. Atlante di Anatomia Umana. Masson, Milano.
E. Pernkopf. Atlante di anatomia sistematica e topografica dell'uomo. Vol. 1° (testa e collo), Piccin
Editore, Padova.
B. Tillman. Atlante di anatomia- Odontoiatria e Medicina. RC Edizioni Scientifiche, Milano.
Gilroy et al. Atlante di Anatomia. Prometheus Università, UTET.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of a written test of human anatomy as a 40 multiple choice question test (MCQT; 40 questions, each with 5 possible independent answers, each could be true/ false) and oral assessment on the special anatomy of the stomatognathic apparatus. Students will be informed of the results of the written test through a printed document hanging on the board of the Institute located in via Mangiagalli 31 and via email to the student representatives. The oral assessment will take place in the following days according to the alphabetical order and extraction at fate of the beginning letter.
Passing the written test allows access to the oral exam. The 30th mark generated by the written test can be confirmed, raised or lowered without constraints during the oral examination to obtain the final mark.
An intermediate test is provided on the general anatomy topics at the end of the corresponding lessons (in the months of April-May) in the form of multiple choice test. Students who have successfully passed the intermediate test will be admitted to the oral assessment only during the summer session exams (June-July); otherwise, the whole exam will be taken.
There are 8 exam sessions per academic year.
Registration to exams through SIFA is mandatory for each session. Students do not need to register on SIFA for the intermediate multiple-choice tests.
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 9
Lessons: 90 hours
appointment by e-mail
Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31 - Milano - via Microsoft Teams