Human body

A.Y. 2021/2022
19
Max ECTS
248
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/16 BIO/17
Language
English
Learning objectives
The course addresses the organization of the human body from the cellular and tissue level to the organ/system level, including how this organization comes into being during development.
The systematic and topographic approaches are integrated in light of the clinical practice. The course provides the comprehensive fundamental background to understand the functions and pathologies of the different organs and systems. Some specific contents are provided in other integrated courses of the curriculum (cytology in Cells, molecules and genes I, part of Neuroanatomy and of Anatomy of the Head and Neck in Functions, Head and Neck and Neurobiology, human behaviour and clinical neuroscience) "Functional drops" are introduced in the lectures to exemplify the relationships between morphology and its functional correlates. "Diagnostic and Clinical drops" are introduced in the lectures to exemplify how disruption of normal development and structure leads to pathology, so to underline the relevance of anatomy in clinical practice.
Expected learning outcomes
Students are expected to be able to:
-Describe cells, cell ultrastructure, and tissues and their functional aspects in relation to the morphological organization.
-Describe gametogenesis, fertilization, the early stages of embryonic development, and the key mechanisms leading to organogenesis.
-Illustrate the main morphological events and the relevant related molecular aspects characterizing the development of the body and its various organ systems in order to acquire the vision of the adult anatomy through a dynamic developmental view and understand the basis of congenital defects
-Illustrate the structural principles underlying the functions of organs and systems
-Illustrate the general principles of the body plan at both the systematic (organs and systems) and the topographic levels (regions of the body and corresponding deep spaces)and systems).
- Possess sufficient anatomical information to proficiently attend the subsequent courses.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
There are no specific pre-requirements for the Human Body course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Assessment methods: multiple choice tests and oral assessment, slide diagnosis at the light microscope.
Intermediate tests: At the end of the first semester, students will be evaluated through a multiple choice test and for their ability to describe and recognize histological preparations at the light microscope (histology, with tissue diagnosis; microanatomy, with organ diagnosis). A second multiple choice test will be performed at the end of the second semester (II semester topics).
Students who have successfully passed both intermediate tests and both slide diagnoses will be admitted to the oral exam. Slide diagnoses will remain always valid; the two intermediate multiple choice tests will be valid for two oral examinations throughout the entire academic year.
Starting from the end of the course: it will be possible to take a single multiple choice test covering the whole program, as well as both slide diagnoses. In case of failure of the oral exam, the test will be kept valid through the session (summer, fall or winter session).
Before each oral exam session, it will be possible to take a single multiple choice test covering the whole program, as well as both slide diagnoses.

Registration to exams through SIFA is mandatory for each session. Students do not need to register on SIFA for the intermediate multiple choice tests.
Histology and embryology
Course syllabus
Topic 1: Presentation of the course. Introduction to histology. From tissue sample collection to the observation at the microscope.
· Describe the main techniques used in histology.
· Describe the general aspects of histological specimen processing, such as inclusion, fixation and sectioning.
· Describe the main commonly used histological and histochemical staining.

Topic 2: Special topic: Instruments for morphological analysis and biomedical applications: not "simply" microscopes.
· Describe the main instruments for the morphological analysis and their application in the different fields of medicine for both research and diagnostic purposes.

Topic 3: Epithelia: apical and basolateral specializations of epithelial cells. Cell junctions.
· Describe the general aspect and function of epithelial cells.
· Describe and recognize microvilli, cilia, and stereocilia.
· Describe and recognize intercellular junctions at light and electron microscope levels.
· Describe occluding, anchoring, and gap junctions in epithelial cells and in different cell types, and discuss their functions.
Clinical drops: pemphigus foliaceus.
Clinical drops: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Topic 4: Lining epithelia: classification and localizations.
· Describe general aspects and functions of epithelia tissue: lining and secretory epithelia.
· Describe the general aspects and function of lining epithelia.
· Describe the types and the functions of epithelial cells.
· Describe the relationship between morphology and function in epithelial cells.
· Classify the different epithelia that cover or line an organ, and describe their localization.
· Describe the structure of epidermis and the cell types that are contained.
· Describe the structure and function of the basement membrane.
· Describe stem cells in the epithelia tissue: localization recognition and function.

Topic 5: Exocrine glands.
· Describe the general aspect and function of exocrine glands.
· Distinguish unicellular from multicellular exocrine glands.
· Compare the histological aspect and microscopic structure of the major multicellular exocrine glands.
· Describe the interrelationship and functions of the intercalated duct, striated duct, and interlobular duct.

Topic 6: Endocrine glands.
· Describe the general aspect and function of endocrine glands.
· Describe the cytological and histological characteristics of the endocrine glands, and recognize their structure.
· Describe the functional role of the hypophyseal portal circulation in the regulation of pituitary secretions.
· Describe the functional role of the nervous system in coordinating the actions of the endocrine glands.

Topic 7: Connective tissue: cellular components and extracellular matrix.
· Describe the general organization of the connective tissue.
· Describe the key morphological and functional differences between epithelia and connective tissue.
· Identify the cellular components of connective tissue and describe their functional role.
· Describe the components of the extracellular matrix, and their interrelationship.
Clinical drops: extracellular matrix remodelling in tumor invasion and fibrosis

Topic 8: Connective tissue: proper connective tissue
· Illustrate the classification, the properties and typical locations of the various types of connective tissues: loose, dense regular, dense irregular, adipose, elastic, and reticular.
· Describe the localization and understand the functional roles of the different connective tissues.

Topic 9: Specialized connective tissue: cartilage.
· Describe how the cellular and extracellular components of cartilage contribute to its structure and function.
· Describe the mechanisms of cartilage growth.
· Recognize the three classifications of cartilage.
· Describe the main localizations of cartilage in the human body.

Topic 10: Specialized connective tissue: bone and osteogenesis.
· Describe the cellular and extracellular components of bone, and discuss how they contribute to the structure and function of this tissue.
· Recognize the differences between compact and spongy bone, and compare their functions.
· Describe the periosteum and its functional role.
· Describe the mechanisms of bone growth.
· Describe the mechanisms of bone remodelling and repair.

Topic 11: Specialized connective tissue: blood and hemopoiesis.
· Describe the components and the general functions of blood.
· Distinguish red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, and describe their functional role.
· Describe the cytological and histological aspect of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
· Describe the main steps of hemostasis.
· Describe the developmental precursors of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
· Distinguish the morphological changes that occur during differentiation into an erythrocyte and a granulocyte.

Topic 12: Muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues.
· Describe the components of skeletal muscle, and understand their functions.
· Describe the structure of myofibrils.
· Describe the sarcomere structure and the principles of striated muscle contraction.
· Describe the arrangement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and its function during muscle contraction.
· Recognize skeletal muscle in histological preparations.
· Distinguish the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium structure and function in a skeletal muscle.
· Distinguish the morphological criteria to recognize skeletal and cardiac muscle in histological preparations.
· Describe the functional differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle.
· Understand the morphological criteria to recognize cardiac and smooth muscle in histological preparations.
· Learn the functional differences between skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle.
· Describe the main localizations of smooth muscle tissue.
· Understand the general principles of smooth muscle contraction.

Topic 13: Special topic: Tenocytes are ''superman-like'' cells in tendons.
· Describe the general structure of tendons.
· Describe tenocyte morphology and main functions.

Topic 14: Nervous tissue
· Describe the structure and the general function of neurons.
· Describe the structural relationships between the axon, myelin sheath, node of Ranvier, Schmidt-Lantermann clefts, and the Schwann cell.
· Describe the process of myelination and myelin function.
· Recognize nervous tissue in histological sections.
· Understand the general structure of a peripheral nerve.
· Distinguish the endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium of a peripheral nerve.
· Describe the structure of synapses and their role in the transmission of nerve impulse
· Describe the morphology and the general function of glial cells, and their relationship with neurons.
· Describe the blood-brain barrier and its role.
· Recognize specialized sensory neuronal endings, their main localization and their function.


Topic 15: Dental tissues: enamel, dentin, pulp, and periodontal tissues
· Describe the structure tooth enamel.
· Describe the structure of dentin and pulp.
· Describe the periodontal tissues.
· Describe the main phases of tooth organogenesis.

General embryology
During this module the key mechanisms leading to both male and female gametogenesis, and to fertilization will be discussed, as well as the early stages of the human embryonic development.

Topic 1: Introduction. Male gametogenesis. Testes and cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. Introduction to genital ducts.
· Describe the general histological organization of the testis and epididymis.
· Describe the process of spermatogenesis.
· Distinguish the structural changes that occur in the spermatids during spermiogenesis.
· Describe the various cell types of the seminiferous tubule and of the interstitium of the testis.
· Describe the relationship between the Sertoli cells and developing sperm cells.
· Compare the structure and function of the epididymis and genital ducts.
· Describe the "blood-testis" barrier and explain why it is important.

Topic 2: Female gametogenesis. Ovary and uterus. Maturation of follicles and menstrual cycle
· Describe the histological organization of the ovaries.
· Describe the process of oogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation.
· Discuss the relationship of the ovarian follicle, corpus luteum and corpus albicans.
· Illustrate the changes in the ovaries during ageing process.
· Describe those cells involved in steroid production within the ovary.
· Describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis and how this relates to monthly changes in the ovaries.
· Describe the general structure of the uterus and uterine tubes.
· Describe the cyclic changes of the endometrium.
· Describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis and how this relates to monthly changes in the uterus.

Topic 3: Fertilization. Early stages of the embryo development. Segmentation. Morula. Blastocyst implantation
· Describe the process of fertilization and the phases of zygote cleavage.
· Describe the implantation and continuation of embryonic development.
· Describe the formation of the amniotic cavity and of the embryonic disc.

Topic 4: 3rd week of embryo development
· Describe the role of primitive streak and primitive node and the formation of the body axes.
· Describe the formation of the three primitive layers.
· Describe the notochord and its role.
· Describe the formation of the neural plate and neural tube.
· Describe the destiny of the neural crest.

Topic 5: Embryo annexes
· Describe the amniotic cavity.
· Describe the allantois.
· Describe the yolk sac and illustrate the concepts of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the formation of embryonic blood vessels.
· Describe the chorionic villi and their functional role.
· Describe the placenta and the fetal placental circulation.

Organ structure and system development
During this module some major topics in organogenesis will be discussed as to understand the main morphological events and the related molecular aspects characterizing the development of the body and its various organ systems. On this basis, the morphological and structural features of mature organs will be described stressing functional aspects.

Topic 1. Principles of organ architecture.
· Describe the general architecture of organs.

Topic 2. Heart and pericardium.
· Describe the external morphology of the heart.
· Describe the internal cavities of the heart.
· Describe the organization of the heart skeleton.
· Describe the structure of the heart wall and the organization of the myocardium.
· Describe the morphology of cardiac valves.
· Describe the organization of the conductive system.
· Describe the vascularization of the heart.
· Describe the morphology and structure of the pericardium.

Topic 3. Structure of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
· Describe the structure of arteries and vein in relation to their function.
· Describe the different types of capillaries in relation to their function.
· Describe the structure of lymphatic vessels.

Topic 4. Layout of the vascular system.
· Describe the general layout of the arterial, venous and lymphatic system.

Topic 5. Lymphoid organs (lymphnodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils).
· Describe the structure of the lymph node and how it accommodates its function.
· Recognize how the structure of the spleen accommodates its function.
· Recognize how the structure of the thymus accommodates its function.
· Describe the structural and functional organization of the MALT.

Topic 6. Digestive system part I: overview of the oral cavity and of the pharynx; macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the esophagus and the stomach.
· Illustrate the general structural organization of the digestive system in relation to the functions of digestion and absorption.
· Describe the general organization of the oral cavity and illustrate the pharynx.
· Illustrate the morphology of the pharynx in relation to its dual function (respiratory and digestive tracts).
· Describe the external and internal morphology of the esophagus and stomach and their histological structure.
· Describe the cell types of the stomach glands and their function.
· Describe the distribution of gastric enteroendocrine cells and their role.

Topic 7. Digestive system part II: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the small and large intestine.
· Describe the external and internal morphology of the small and large intestine and their histological structure.
· Describe the structure of the intestinal villi and crypts and the major cell types of their epithelial lining.
· Describe the organization of the lymphoid tissue in the intestinal wall: the GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue).
· Describe the basic organization of the enteric nervous system.
· Describe the internal morphology of the rectum and anal canal.

Topic 8. Digestive system part III: Macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the salivary glands, exocrine pancreas and liver.
· Describe the organization of salivary glands parenchyma.
· Describe the macroscopic aspect of the liver and to discuss the organization of its parenchyma in relation to the different types of hepatic lobules.
· Describe the gallbladder and the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tracts.
· Describe the macroscopic aspect of the pancreas and discuss the organization of its parenchyma in relation to its endocrine and exocrine function.

Topic 9. Lower respiratory tract: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure.
· Illustrate the outline of the respiratory pathways.
· Describe the morphology and the main structural aspects of the larynx.
· Describe the organization of the tracheo-bronchial tree.
· Illustrate the histological features of the conductive portion and of the respiratory portions of the tracheobronchial tree.
· Describe the macroscopic aspects of the lungs and their lobes.
· Describe the morphofunctional aspects of the pulmonary lobule and acinus.
Clinical drops: asthma.
Clinical drops: emphysema.
· Describe the microcirculation of the lungs.
· Describe the structure of the alveoli and the structure of the gas-exchange barrier.
Clinical drops: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

Topic 10. Urinary system: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the kidney, ureters and lower urinary tract.
· Describe the macroscopic aspect of the kidney.
· Describe the structural organization of the kidney parenchyma and its vascular supply in relation to process of blood filtration and urine production.
· Describe the morphofunctional description of the different segments of the nephron and collecting ducts, the structural aspects of the filtration barrier.
· Describe the iuxta-glomerular apparatus.
· Describe the macroscopic aspect and the general structure of the excretory pathways: calyxes, pelvis, ureters and urinary bladder.
· Describe the male and female urethra.

Topic 11. Reproductive system: macroscopic aspects, functional architecture and structure of the male and female reproductive system.
· Describe the different components of the female reproductive system.
· Describe the morphology of the ovary, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina.
· Describe the structure of these organs and their cyclic changes.
· Describe the different components of the male reproductive system.
· Describe the morphology of the testicle, epididymis, spermatic pathways and accessory glands.
· Describe the main structural aspects of the epididymis, spermatic pathways and accessory glands.
· Describe the different portions of the male urethra.

Topic 12. The 4th week: establishing the body plan.
· Illustrate the concept of organogenesis.
· Describe the destiny of the three embryonic layers.
· Illustrate the concept of segmentation.
· Describe the outcome of the folding of the embryo: formation of the intestinal tube, formation of the body cavities, formation of the body wall.
Developmental defects: gastroschisis and omphalocele.
· Describe the formation and general organization of the embryonic circulation.

Topic 13. Topic: Development of the cardiovascular system, fetal circulation, neonatal circulation.
· Illustrate the contribution of the heart fields and other sources to the heart formation.
· Describe the formation of the heart tube and its looping.
· Describe the basic events leading to the formation of the heart chambers and outflow tract.
· Describe the general organization of the embryonic circulation and how it evolves into the fetal circulation.
· Describe how the fetal circulation changes at birth.
Developmental defects: patent ductus arteriosus.
Developmental defects: main congenital malformation of the heart and outflow tract

Topic 14. The primordial pharynx and the pharyngeal apparatus.
· Describe the pharyngeal apparatus and its relation to the primordial pharynx.
· Illustrate how the different components of the pharyngeal apparatus contribute to the formation of various structures of the head and neck.
· Describe the development of the thyroid gland.
· Describe the development of the thymus.
Developmental defects: DiGeorge syndrome.
Developmental defects: craniosynostosis, Crouzon and Apert syndromes
Developmental defects: first arch syndrome
Developmental defects: Cleft lip/ palate.

Topic 15. Development of the lower respiratory tract.
· Illustrate the formation of the tracheobronchial tree and its segmental pattern.
Developmental defects: tracheo-esophageal fistulas.
Developmental defects: congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
· Describe the stages of lung maturation and their relation to breathing capacities.
· Illustrate the mechanisms contributing to lung maturation.
· Illustrate the basis of the most common malformations of the respiratory system.
Clinical drops: premature birth and respiratory distress syndrome.

Topic 16. Development of the digestive system.
· Illustrate how the different portion of the digestive system develop from the primitive gut.
· Describe the formation of the peritoneum.
· Illustrate the basis of the most common malformations of the digestive system.
Developmental defects: stenosis, atresia, abnormal rotations, fistulae.

Topic 17. Development of the urogenital system.
· Illustrate the formation of the three successive forms of the embryonic kidney and their
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: video conferences, interactive webinars, chat-based online discussions, seminars and lectures; tutorial activities at the light microscope, tutorial and small group activities with human organs and models of human organs.
Asynchronous learning: audio-video based (pre-recorded, multimedia platforms); text-based (e-mail, electronic documents, discussion boards, blogs); tutorial activities at the light microscope.
Teaching Resources
TEXTBOOKS: (more recent editions can be used as well)
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th Edition, 2010
· Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas. Barbara Churchill Livingstone, 2006
· Moore & Dalley Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
· Gray's Anatomy The Anatomical Basis Of Clinical Practice. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Langman's Medical Embryology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 12th Edition, 2011
· Larsen's Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Moore, Persaud, Torchia The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology.
Elsevier, 9th Edition, 2011

SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
Additional material, in particular to online content, will be made available during the course.
Anatomy
Course syllabus
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Histology and Embryology.
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: video conferences, interactive webinars, chat-based online discussions, seminars and lectures; tutorial activities at the light microscope, tutorial and small group activities with human organs and models of human organs.
Asynchronous learning: audio-video based (pre-recorded, multimedia platforms); text-based (e-mail, electronic documents, discussion boards, blogs); tutorial activities at the light microscope.
Teaching Resources
TEXTBOOKS: (more recent editions can be used as well)
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th Edition, 2010
· Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas. Barbara Churchill Livingstone, 2006
· Moore & Dalley Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
· Gray's Anatomy The Anatomical Basis Of Clinical Practice. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Langman's Medical Embryology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 12th Edition, 2011
· Larsen's Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, 2008
· Moore, Persaud, Torchia The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology.
Elsevier, 9th Edition, 2011

SUPPLEMENTAL LEARNING MATERIAL:
Additional material, in particular to online content, will be made available during the course.
Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 13
Practicals: 48 hours
Lessons: 120 hours
Histology and embryology
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Gagliano Nicoletta
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
By appointment via e-mail
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, V. Mangiagalli, 31 - Milan
Reception:
appointment by e-mail
Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31 - Milano - via Microsoft Teams
Reception:
Appointment via e-mail
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences for Health - via Mangiagalli 31, Milan