The eight pillars of Open Science

Eight pillars have been identified by the European Commission to promote open science: FAIR Data, Research Integrity, Next Generation Metrics, Future of Scholarly Communication, Citizen Science, Education and Skills, Rewards and Incentives, and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).

1. FAIR Data

FAIR principles mean that data produced by researchers are:

  • Findable – by the academic community and general public;
  • Accessible – via persistent identifiers, metadata, and clear language understandable to persons and machines;
  • Interoperable – via the application of standards and protocols that allow data to be exchanged without loss of information;
  • Reusable – thus maximizing their potential in research.
2. Research Integrity

Research should adhere to commonly agreed standards of honesty, respect, transparency, and accountability. The University of Milan is committed to maintaining the highest standards of research integrity.

Il Comitato etico e il Codice etico restano punti di riferimento imprescindibili, per questo pilastro della scienza aperta.

L'Ateneo, inoltre, organizza numerosi corsi di didattica trasversale dedicati ai dottorandi, fra cui Research Integrity I (online) e Research Integrity II.

3. Next Generation Metrics

This pillar of Open Science acknowledges cultural change in progress with respect to the use of bibliometric indicators and their use in assessing research quality, going beyond a simple citation count and impact factor.

Appropriate metrics, deriving from different sources and describing different aspects can help us better describe and understand the impact and importance of a study.

L'Ateneo, inoltre, organizza numerosi corsi di didattica trasversale per dottorandi, tra i quali figura anche un percorso espressamente dedicato alla Valutazione della ricerca.

4. Future of Scholarly Communication

This pillar is one of the most complex because the paths to full accessibility of research are many and varied.

L’Università degli Studi di Milano promuove la pubblicazione ad accesso libero di articoli su riviste e monografie, con una propria policy e altri strumenti in linea con le migliori esperienze nazionali e internazionali.

Milano University Press nasce come casa editrice open access per assicurare la divulgazione dei risultati degli studi scientifici e una buona visibilità complessiva del lavoro di ricerca portato avanti sia all'interno che all'esterno dell'Ateneo.

5. Citizen Science

This pillar regards the interaction between researchers and the public in research projects, acknowledging the invaluable role played by the public in providing new research stimuli.

6. Education and Skills

Scientific communication is undergoing transformation and institutions should provide researchers and students with ongoing training in:

7. Rewards and Incentives

If Open Science is to be valued, its practices must be recognized by academic departments and policy makers to promote broad sharing of best practices.

8. European Open Science Cloud (EOSC)

EOSC interconnects interoperable infrastructure to promote collaboration among researchers of different nationalities and scientific specializations.