Human Anatomy and Physiology

A.Y. 2019/2020
11
Max ECTS
88
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/16
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The main aim of the course is to provide students with the most important concepts of morphology and functioning of the human body, as well as the maintenance of homeostasis. This knowledge represents the basis for understanding the subsequent courses in the biologic area.
The unit of anatomy consists of lectures describing the structures of the human body, starting from the composition of tissues, organs, apparatus and systems.
The unit of physiology consists of lectures in which will be addressed the principal molecular mechanisms of cell physiology, the features of organs and systems functioning. Furthermore, the principal control systems as well as their mutual interaction, in response to changes of the endogenous and exogenous environment, will be described.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the teaching student must prove its ability and competence in the description of body parts morphology. Particular attention will be pay in the evaluation of the acquired skill in the microscopical anatomy. Moreover, a correct use of anatomical terminology will be evaluated. Integration of anatomy knowledge with physical and chemical skills will be also assessed. The expected outcomes will provide the fundamental basis for learning of subsequent physiological issues.

At the end of the teaching, students must prove to have acquired the competences on cell and organ physiology, being able to argue critically on the contribution of different organs and apparatuses to the body homeostasis. Therefore, students, will address the physiological issues by means of an integrated approach. The students must prove to use a proper scientific terminology when describing physiologic processes. The expected outcomes will provide the fundamental basis for learning of subsequent specific courses, in the years following the first.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AK

Responsible
Lesson period
year
Course syllabus
The Unit of Anatomy will address the following topics:

Histology
- Basic characteristics and classification criteria of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.

General Anatomy
- General principles of human anatomy. The hollow organs and the solid organs.
- Integumentary System - General characteristics and structure of the skin - Skin appendages - Hints on receptors
- Central Nervous System - General organization of the nervous system: the Blood-brain barrier concept - Neural chains - Synapses - Types of sensitivity - Macroscopic description of the central nervous system - Organization of the gray matter and the white matter in the spinal cord and brain stem - The cerebellum: morphology, cytoarchitectonics - The diencephalon: morphology, main subdivisions - The telencephalon: morphology, cytoarchitectonics - The cortical areas - The meninges.
- Peripheral Nervous System - General organization - The nerves and ganglia - Peripheral nerve endings - Spinal nerves - The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
- Cardio-Vascular System - General organization of the circulatory system - The heart - The pericardium - The arterial and venous vessels.
- Respiratory system - General organization - The nasal cavities - The larynx - The trachea and the bronchi - The lungs - Concept of pulmonary lobule - The pulmonary alveoli: Air-Blood Barrier - The pleura.
- Digestive system - General organization - The oral cavity: tongue, salivary glands - The pharynx - The esophagus - The stomach - The small intestine and the large intestine - The liver - The pancreas - The spleen
- Urinary System - General Organization - The Kidney - Blood Barrier Concept - Urine - The Nephron - Ureter - Bladder - Urethra
- Endocrine system - General organization - The endocrine hypothalamus - The pituitary gland and the hypophyseal portal system - General information on all the glands and description of the endocrine, adrenal, thymus, thyroid and pancreas structures.
- Male Reproductive System - General organization - The sperm pathway - The glands annexed to the male reproductive system - Spermatogenesis
- Female Reproductive System - General organization - Female genital system and attached glands - The ovarian cycle and oogenesis

The Unit of Physiology will address the following topics:
- General principles of physiology: Integration and coordination of physiological functions. Homeostasis; Body composition, intra- and extra-cellular volumes, distribution of solutes through cell membranes, osmosis;
- The excitable cells: resting membrane potential; action potentials.
- Neurons: spatial and temporal summation; signal conduction; synapses; excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
- Central nervous system: Functional organization of CNS. Hypothalamus and vegetative functions. Sleep-wake rhythms. Sensory cortex, motor cortex and control of posture and movement. Instinctive behaviors and emotions. Conditioned reflexes. Higher cortical functions: learning and memory.
- Muscle cells: action potential in skeletal, autoritmic and cardiac muscle cells; neuromuscular plaque; excitation-contraction coupling; intrinsic and extrinsic control of muscle contraction; energy sources and muscle metabolism.
- Intercellular communications: Endocrine system. Sensory apparatus. Receptors and sensory transmission. Afferent and efferent nerve pathways. Autonomous and somatic nervous systems.
- Cardio-circulatory system: electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Cardiac cycle and ventricular volume-pressure relationship during the cardiac cycle. The normal electrocardiogram. Cardiac output, blood flow and regulatory mechanisms. The law of Frank and Starling. Blood flow dynamics: functional role of arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins; flow, pressure and resistance of the system, role of smooth muscles in the control of arterial pressure; Laplace's law; capillary exchanges; role of the lymphatic system in maintaining interstitial fluid volume; venous flow and return of blood to the heart. Nervous, hormonal and local control of circulation and arterial pressure. Cardiovascular homeostasis in physiological conditions.
- Blood: Components. Role of plasma proteins in transport, capillary exchanges and coagulation. Functions of erythrocytes in gas transport; oxygen-hemoglobin association/dissociation curves; hemoglobin catabolism; blood groups. Platelets and blood clotting mechanisms.
- Respiratory system: Respiratory mechanics and lung volumes. Properties of gases. Gas exchange at the level of the pulmonary alveoli. Local and central control of pulmonary ventilation: role of pH, CO2 and oxygen. The bulbar centers of respiration control.
- Renal apparatus: Regulation of renal blood flow. Glomerular filtration: plasma proteins and filtration pressure; measurement and control of glomerular filtration rate. Clearance and its use in the study of renal function. Resorption and secretion along the various sections of the renal tubule. Henle's loop and countercurrent concentration. Regulated reabsorption of water and electrolytes: ADH and aldosterone.
- Integrated control: composition of extracellular fluids, plasma volume and arterial pressure. Buffer Systems. Maintenance of acid-base balance.
- Digestive System: Nervous and endocrine regulation of digestion and motility. Digestion and absorption mechanisms of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Micronutrient absorption (water, electrolytes, vitamins). Stomach functions. Composition, functions and mechanisms of secretion of pancreatic juice. Liver functions. Components and formation of bile. Control of eating behaviour.
- Reproductive physiology: differentiation of the reproductive system, hormonal changes during the ovulatory and menstrual cycle, testis function, puberty; effects of male and female sex hormones on the organism.
Prerequisites for admission
The course imply the knowledge of basic concepts in Physics, Chemistry and Biology acquired in previous courses
Teaching methods
The course is based on frontal teaching, by using slides and/or videos. Material of lectures will be provided on UNIMI-Ariel website
Teaching Resources
Principi di Anatomia Microscopica con cenni di istologia e Anatomia Macroscopica Editore EDISES - SBN 9788833190068
Anatomia Umana F. H. Martini, R. B. Tallitsch, J. L. Nath, EDISES- ISBN 9788833190259

Fisiologia Umana. Fondamenti - Ed. EdiErmes - ISBN 9788870515442
Fisiologia dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati - Ed. EdiSES - ISBN 9788879599795
Fisiologia Umana Silverthorn - Ed. Pearson - ISBN 9788891902177
Assessment methods and Criteria
The Anatomy unit evaluation is a one-hour written exam in which students have to answer three questions, concerning the topics covered during the course. To pass the test the student must answer to all three questions sufficiently. The assessment is expressed in /30 and the final mark depends on the accuracy and precision of the answers given.
The Physiology unit evaluation is a frontal examination, which consists of two/three questions concerning the main topics covered during the course. The production of graphs and/or schemes describing the physiological phenomena would be frequently requested. The time of the exam is about 30 minutes. In order to pass the test, the student must answer all general questions; the assessment is expressed in /30.
The final mark is the weighted average of the assessment of the tests obtained in each units (Anatomy and Physiology) of the course.
Human Anatomy
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Rumio Cristiano
Physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Magnaghi Valerio

Linea LZ

Lesson period
year
Course syllabus
The Unit of Anatomy will address the following topics:
HISTOLOGY
Basic characteristics and classification criteria of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
GENERAL ANATOMY
General principles of human anatomy. The hollow organs and the solid organs.
Integumentary System - General characteristics and structure of the skin - Skin appendages - Hints on receptors
Central Nervous System - General organization of the nervous system: the Blood-brain barrier concept - Neural chains - Synapses - Types of sensitivity - Macroscopic description of the central nervous system - Organization of the gray matter and the white matter in the spinal cord and brain stem - The cerebellum: morphology, cytoarchitectonics - The diencephalon: morphology, main subdivisions - The telencephalon: morphology, cytoarchitectonics - The cortical areas - The meninges.
Peripheral Nervous System - General organization - The nerves and ganglia - Peripheral nerve endings - Spinal nerves - The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Cardio-Vascular System - General organization of the circulatory system - The heart - The pericardium - The arterial and venous vessels.
Respiratory system - General organization - The nasal cavities - The larynx - The trachea and the bronchi - The lungs - Concept of pulmonary lobule - The pulmonary alveoli: Air-Blood Barrier - The pleura.
Digestive system - General organization - The oral cavity: tongue, salivary glands - The pharynx - The esophagus - The stomach - The small intestine and the large intestine - The liver - The pancreas - The spleen
Urinary System - General Organization - The Kidney - Blood Barrier Concept - Urine - The Nephron - Ureter - Bladder - Urethra
Endocrine system - General organization - The endocrine hypothalamus - The pituitary gland and the hypophyseal portal system - General information on all the glands and description of the endocrine, adrenal, thymus, thyroid and pancreas structures.
Male Reproductive System - General organization - The sperm pathway - The glands annexed to the male reproductive system - Spermatogenesis
Female Reproductive System - General organization - Female genital system and attached glands - The ovarian cycle and oogenesis.
The Unit of Physiology will address the following topics:
General principles of physiology: Integration and coordination of physiological functions. Homeostasis; Body composition, intra- and extra-cellular volumes, distribution of solutes through cell membranes, osmosis;
The excitable cells: resting membrane potential; action potentials.
Neurons: spatial and temporal summation; signal conduction; synapses; excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
Central nervous system: Functional organization of CNS. Hypothalamus and vegetative functions. Sleep-wake rhythms. Sensory cortex, motor cortex and control of posture and movement. Instinctive behaviors and emotions. Conditioned reflexes. Higher cortical functions: learning and memory.
Muscle cells: action potential in skeletal, autoritmic and cardiac muscle cells; neuromuscular plaque; excitation-contraction coupling; intrinsic and extrinsic control of muscle contraction; energy sources and muscle metabolism.
Intercellular communications: Endocrine system. Sensory apparatus. Receptors and sensory transmission. Afferent and efferent nerve pathways. Autonomous and somatic nervous systems.
Cardio-circulatory system: electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Cardiac cycle and ventricular volume-pressure relationship during the cardiac cycle. The normal electrocardiogram. Cardiac output, blood flow and regulatory mechanisms. The law of Frank and Starling. Blood flow dynamics: functional role of arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins; flow, pressure and resistance of the system, role of smooth muscles in the control of arterial pressure; Laplace's law; capillary exchanges; role of the lymphatic system in maintaining interstitial fluid volume; venous flow and return of blood to the heart. Nervous, hormonal and local control of circulation and arterial pressure. Cardiovascular homeostasis in physiological conditions.
Blood: Components. Role of plasma proteins in transport, capillary exchanges and coagulation. Functions of erythrocytes in gas transport; oxygen-hemoglobin association/dissociation curves; hemoglobin catabolism; blood groups. Platelets and blood clotting mechanisms.
Respiratory system: Respiratory mechanics and lung volumes. Properties of gases. Gas exchange at the level of the pulmonary alveoli. Local and central control of pulmonary ventilation: role of pH, CO2 and oxygen. The bulbar centers of respiration control.
Renal apparatus: Regulation of renal blood flow. Glomerular filtration: plasma proteins and filtration pressure; measurement and control of glomerular filtration rate. Clearance and its use in the study of renal function. Resorption and secretion along the various sections of the renal tubule. Henle's loop and countercurrent concentration. Regulated reabsorption of water and electrolytes: ADH and aldosterone.
Integrated control: composition of extracellular fluids, plasma volume and arterial pressure. Buffer Systems. Maintenance of acid-base balance.
Digestive System: Nervous and endocrine regulation of digestion and motility. Digestion and absorption mechanisms of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Micronutrient absorption (water, electrolytes, vitamins). Stomach functions. Composition, functions and mechanisms of secretion of pancreatic juice. Liver functions. Components and formation of bile. Control of eating behaviour.
Reproductive physiology: differentiation of the reproductive system, hormonal changes during the ovulatory and menstrual cycle, testis function, puberty; effects of male and female sex hormones on the organism.
Prerequisites for admission
The course imply the knowledge of basic concepts in Physics, Chemistry and Biology acquired in previous courses.
Teaching methods
The course is based on frontal teaching, by using slides and/or videos. Material of lectures will be provided on UNIMI-Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
Principi di Anatomia Microscopica con cenni di istologia e Anatomia Macroscopica Editore EDISES - SBN 9788833190068
Anatomia Umana F. H. Martini, R. B. Tallitsch, J. L. Nath, EDISES- ISBN 9788833190259

Fisiologia Umana. Fondamenti - Ed. EdiErmes - ISBN 9788870515442
Fisiologia dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati - Ed. EdiSES - ISBN 9788879599795
Fisiologia Umana Silverthorn - Ed. Pearson - ISBN 9788891902177
Assessment methods and Criteria
The Anatomy unit evaluation is an one-hour written exam in which students have to answer three questions, concerning the topics covered during the course. To pass the test the student must answer to all the three questions sufficiently. The assessment is expressed in /30 and the final mark depends on the accuracy and precision of the answers given.
The Physiology unit evaluation is a frontal examination, which consists of two/three questions concerning the main topics covered during the course. The production of graphs and/or schemes describing the physiological phenomena would be frequently requested. Time of exam is about 30 minutes. In order to pass the test, the student must answer all general questions; the assessment is expressed in /30.
The final mark is the weighted average of the assessment of the tests obtained in each units (Anatomy and Physiology) of the course.
Human Anatomy
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Borsello Tiziana
Physiology
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday to Friday, by appointment
Via Balzaretti 9, floor 4
Reception:
by appointment