Enology 2

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Unit 1: The course is designed to provide students with basic
theoretical concepts in the proper management of winemaking.
Concepts learned in preparatory courses will be largely taken
up and enriched with new information and aimed at learning
the principles of winemaking. The student will analyze the
stages involved in the production of red and white wines.
Unit 2: The course is finalized to provide the most suitable tools in order to apply different sensory methods and to face and solve business problems from a sensory point of view, such as wine aging, the comparison of new products with similar ones already on the market, the verification of the compliance
to sensory specifications and the management of wine quality and safety within the wine production chain.
Expected learning outcomes
Unit 1: The knowledge gained will enable the graduate to work
in Viticulture and Enology at both operational and management
in the cellars of production, interacting both with growers and
with those involved in the commercialization and marketing.
The student will be able to conduct autonomously a rational
process of managing the winemaking practices of crushing,
control and correction of the musts and their sulfidation. It will
be able to prepare the yeast for fermentation and manage the
process of fermentation. It will know how to prepare the
malolactic process and the phases of aging in steel and wood.
It will be able to perform correct practices of microbial
stabilization and packaging consistent with the type of wine.
Unit 2: The knowledge gained will enable the student to acquire expertise in the field of sensory science, more specifically, the student will be able to analyze and understand sensory problems by applyng the most appropriate methodology, to organize and perform a sensory tasting session, to plan and manage a sensory laboratory, to analyse sensory data and to communicate with all company managers, especially those involved in the wine market.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
The examination part concerning Sensory Analysis will be held as it follows, until the current sanitary emergency will allow a safe students presence in the university venues. The test consists of an oral examination including a series of questions related to the topics discussed during frontal and practical lessons. The evaluation parameters that will be considered are the correctness of the answers, the appropriateness of the language and the ability to summarize the concept in relation to the solution of sensory problems in the wine sector. The evaluation is in thirtieths. There are no intermediate tests. In order to take the final exam, students must register within the deadline set on SIFA (http://www.unimi.it/). The mark is communicated to each student by automated e-mail by the university's verbalization system.
Prerequisites for admission
The course is aimed to finalize the knowledge provided by the course of Oenology 1, embedding information of specific wine making and sensory evaluation methods which need the concepts of statistics. Therefore, the student must have passed the exams of Statistics or "Abilità informatiche, statistiche e di gestione dati in azienda vitivinicola" as well as Oenology 1.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is composed by two partial parts: one calculation trial applied to the sensory analysis and on oral trial concerning the phenomena and the wine making and ageing techniques of wine. The trial related to Sensory Analysis consists of a written examination including a series of statistical exercises similar to those dealt with during the course and open questions related to the topics discussed during the lessons. The questions are projected and suitable time is left to answer each questions . The total duration of the test is approx. 30-40 minutes.
The trial related to the Technology of Wine Making Processes is oral and it is aimed to assess the knowledge related to wine making and packaging processes.
The evaluation parameters considered are the correctness of the answers, the appropriateness of the language and the ability to summarize.
Technologies and enological processes
Course syllabus
Introduction to the course, the examination method and the didactic supports. Co-polimerization phenomena involving proanthocyanindins and anthocyanins. The pyranoanthocyanins.
Tools and kinetics of oxygen diffusion in fermentative maceration.
Structure and tehnology of wine making vats: the rational vinification vat and the main vinification vats (Gimar Selector system, Ganimede system, the rotomacerators, etc).
Functional properties of either concrete or oak wood wine making vats. Wine making in earthenware jars according to the Kaketian approach.
Wood barrels: wood composition, natural compounds and wood toasting induced compounds, oxygen transfer through the wood and its interaction with tannin, the role of hydration.
Wine racking over wine aging. The handling of new barrels or old barrels. The cleaning methods. Calculation exercises concerning the managing of refilling and SO2 addition.
The conductivity methods for measuring the tartaric stability of wine. The chemical (additives, ion-exchange resins), physical (heat) and physical-chemical (electrodialysis).
Sparkling wine from champenoise method: managing of grape ripening, harvest and must production. The presses for sparkling wine production and their rational use. Malolactic fermentation for sparkling wine. The tirage and the preparation and inoculation of pied-de-cuve. Selection parameters of yeast strain for sparkling wine. Sparkling wine ageing and classification. The structure of airtight vat. Wine making for sparkling wine production.
Wine making from shrivelled grape. Grape shrivelling methods and technology. Effect of shrivelling on grape weight, sugar content, malic and tartaric acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanin, terpenes, glycerol,acetic acid, aldheydes and higher alcohols. Production of Vin Santo and fundamentals of major Italian Passito wines.
Botrytis and its growth on grape. Enzyme activities of Botrytis and their effect on grape and wine. Comparison of grey and noble rot concerning growth and functional behaviour. Wine making from noble rot and sensory and compositional properties.
Calculation exercises, revision of topics based on student's questions. Concepts and definitions of the Packaging operations. Materials in the wine industry. Technological functionality and food contact compliance. Bottling and packaging techniques. The conditioning techniques. Closing systems.
Teaching methods
The whole module of the course is provided by regular classroom lectures embedded with calculation execises
Teaching Resources
Power Point slides showed over the lectures and available on the ARIEL web portal. References reported in the slides. Handbook of Oenology. Vol. 1 and 2. Ribereau Gayon et al. (2018). Ed. Edagricole-New Business Media. Edizione 4.
Supplementary readings:
Piergiovanni, L. e Limbo, S. 2010. Food Packaging. Materiali, tecnologie e qualità degli alimenti. Springer. (Italian language). See in particular chapters 1-4-12. This book is also available in multiple copies at the Faculty Library.
Lee, Yam, Piergiovanni. 2008. Food Packaging Science and Technology. CRC Press. (English language). See in particular chapters 1-4-11
Sensory Analysis
Course syllabus
Introduction to sensory analysis - Sensory perception mechanisms - Sensory stimuli in wines - The sensory lab, the panel of judges and the official sensory analysis methods - The psychophysiology of perception and the methods to minimize physiological and psychological errors - Methods for the selection, recruitment and training of judges (with practical activities in the sensory lab) - Experimental design and statistical processing of results for discriminant and descriptive methodologies (with practical activities related to the wine sector in the sensory lab) - Sensory applications and research questions in the wine sector.
Teaching methods
The course will be provided in the following ways: lectures, practical laboratory activities, calculation exercises.
Teaching Resources
1) E. Pagliarini, Valutazione sensoriale: Aspetti teorici, pratici e metodologici, Hoepli, Milano, 2002
2) Jackson, R. (2002). Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook.
Supplementary teaching material is avilable on the Ariel website portal.
Sensory Analysis
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 5
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 36 hours
Professor: Laureati Monica
Technologies and enological processes
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
by appointment
Building 21040 (under Room 4)